The purpose of the present study was to examined the hypothesis that the effects of observational learning of altruistic behavior are related to personal viewpoint, self-efficacy, outcome expectation, and other factors. One hundred and fifty-five fourth-grade school children were assigned randomly to four conditions; distress viewpoint, outcome expectation, altruistic behavior, or non-observational control. After observational learning, the students were immediately administered the generalization test of altruistic behavior, empathy, reward and punishment expectations, and rating tests of self efficacy belief. It was found that; (a) altruistic behavior and outcome expectation conditions had significant learning effects, (b) self-efficacy was able to predict altruistic response in the altruistic behavior viewpoint condition, and (c) from an outcome expectation viewpoint, altruistic behavior toward peers and adults related to punishment expectation, whereas social sharing was related to reward expectation. According to these findings, an observational learning model of altruistic behavior was proposed.
Three experiments were conducted to examine the recognition process of the jukugo (two-kanji-compound word) from the following three points of view: (1) how jukugos are retrieved from memory (Exp. 1), (2) how jukugos are activated in the retrieval process (Exp. 2), and (3) how the representation of jukugos is structured in memory (Exp. 3). The experiments were carried out using priming paradigms in which subjects performed a lexical decision task. The results of Exp. 1 and Exp. 2 showed that the first kanji was used as retrieval cue for each jukugo and the activation of the first kanji facilitated the identification of jukugo in terms of meaning. In Exp. 3, it was suggested that the lexicon of jukugo was formed in such a structure that several jukugos containing in common the same first kanji are tied together, centering on the first kanji.
The purpose of this study is to develop a school stressor scale from the events experienced frequently by junior high school students in their daily school life, and to examine the relationship between school stressors and stress responses. In study I, factor analysis of data by 552 students revealed four main factors “teacher”, “friend”, “club activity”, and “study”, which were extracted from initial set of 72 items. In study II, factor analysis of 50 items, of which 39 items were extracted in study I, and 11 new items of free-description type, of data by 622 students, revealed that main stressors in junior high school were following six, “teacher”, “friend”, “club activity”, “study”, “rule”, and “ofcial activity”. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses revealed that “friend” strikingly correlated with “depressive-anxious emotion” and “study” did with “cognition-thought of helplessness”.
It is assumed that dyadic conversation proceed according to some of each participants' conversation strategies. The strategies are as follows; 1) Receptivity, 2) Emotional expressivity, 3) Cognitive expressivity, 4) Partner comprehension, 5) Contingent comprehension, 6) Self-assertivity. In this experiment, strategies and interpersonal cognition were manipulated by three factors, (1) partners' conversation acts, with high or low expressivity rule, and (2) high or low act of conversation performance rule, and (3) nature of topics. One hundered and twenty-eight undergraduates are asked to rate their level of intention to select a strategy, in a given conversation situation. The results are as follows: 1) Both cognition of conversational purpose for a given situation and partners' expressivity influenced on their conversation strategy, 2) correspondence of strategy prompt participants to active conversation, 3) partners' conversation acts influenced on interpersonal cognition in any situations, 4) social desirability in interpersonal cognition is influenced by both strategy and topic, 5) partners' strategy makes participants select different interaction in the subsequent conversation situation.
In this experiment subjects studied two lists of words. One list was presented in a normal form and the other list was presented in an inverted form. Then subjects were given a word fragment completion test, in which half of the words of each list in the study phase presented in the normal form and the other half were presented in the inverted form. There were two word fragment completion tests, a fast test and a slow test. In the fast test, larger priming was obtained when the presented form of words between study and test was matched, as compared with not matched. But in the slow test, priming wasn't influenced by the presented form of words. Word fragment completion had been classified as a data-driven test, but the slow test was relying on data-driven processing less than the fast one. Considering these findings, it was concluded that word fragment completion test involves not only data-driven but conceptually driven processing, and that one can manipulate test performance so that it is data-driven or conceptually driven under some conditions.
The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of between-item elaboration on incidental memory of words. Between-item elaboration refers to the encoding of relational information to each target item. Forty-four college students were asked to generate free associates to each target in the orienting task which was followed by unexpected recognition and recall tests. Triplets of targets which was known to elicit a converging associate were used. Targets of such a triplet were presented in massed or spaced fashion. Frequency of converging associates generated in the orienting task (free association) was used as an index of between-item elaboration. The proportion of targets correctly recalled for which the converging associates were generated was higher than that of the opposite cases. The above result suggested that the between-item elaboration was effective in retrieval of targets. No effect of types of presentation on free recall performance was observed.
An experiment with ellipses was conducted to evaluate the validity of Metzger's theory on geometrical illusions (the law of good Gestalt) by examining whether its major axis is underestimated and its minor axis overestimated. If the horizontal or vertical dimension of a circle with a fixed diameter is reduced, “smaller” ellipses with major axes equal to the circle's diameter will be constructed. On the other hand, if the dimension is enlarged, “larger” ellipses with minor axes equal to the circle's diameter will be produced. Ten university students estimated the apparent lengths of such axes. It was found that the major axes were underestimated, while the minor axes were overestimated, irrespective of the relative sizes of the ellipses. The same result was obtained when the orientation of the axis was rotated 90°. These results may be interpreted in line with Metzger's theory to the illusion of major and minor axes in ellipse.
The present study investigated the determinant of compliant conforming behaviour from the viewpoint of the self-monitoring. Subjects, who were classified into High Self-Monitors (HSM) and Low Self-Monitors (LSM), participated in the experiment in which they had a task to distinguish the size of two circles. About the half of subjects performed the task with confederates. In eight of 13 trials, confederates had mistaken distinctions intentionally. The results showed HSM were more conformable to confederates than LSM for male subjects. HSM seemed to conform themselves to confederates easily, because their behaviour was guided by external cues. By contrast, LSM would conform themselves with difficulty, because their behaviour was guided by their internal states. But there were no significant differences for female subjects, and the ability of self-monitoring was considered as the less explanatory determinant for conformity in this experiment.
Two experiments were performed to examine the effect of stimulus intensity on VISS (visual stream segregation) which is a kind of beta movement first described by Bregman and Achim (1973). Six subjects were required to find the upper threshold of ISI for producing VISS under various conditions of the stumulus intensity in each experiment. The ISI threshold decreased as the stimulus intensity was increased. The result showed that VISS follows Korte's second law of apparent motion. When two of the four lights were flashed in high intensity and the rest in low intensity, the ISI thresholds varied with the arrangement of intensity among the four lights (stimulus intensity pattern). The results suggest that VISS is affected by the factor of similarity resulting from the intensity patterns of the lights.