Precision of self-efficacy predictions on a ball-throwing task was compared between the younger group (3-year-olds; N=40) and the older group (5-year-olds; N=40). Three factors underlying the development of accurate efficacy expectations were examined. They were the effect of experience, the complexity of the task, and information of task performance. Results indicated that the predictions of the older group were more accurate than those of the younger group, and their predictions were significantly related to subsequent performance. They did more realistic efficacy predictions by using information of task performance and experience. The younger group showed no accuracy of self-efficacy predictions. But the presentation of information about task performance enabled them to make realistic efficacy predictions.
Two experiments are reported which deal with the nature of categorization of visual patterns. Stimulus materials were schematic butterfly patterns. Systematic transformations of five physical features (fore wing, hind wing, size, body length and color) were applied to a prototype to generate a set of instances. In Experiment 1, subjects were asked to judge the visual similarity between each instance and the prototype. Similarity ratings were found to be related to an each instance's transformational distance from the prototype. In Experiment 2, subjects were exposed to a subset of instances of the pattern which varied in their transformational distance from the prototype, and then given a recognition test with confidence ratings. The recognition item consisted of the old and new instances including the prototype. Recognition ratings were found to be related to each instance's family resemblance score rather than its transformational distance and subjective similarity to the prototype. These results support Rosch and Mervis's family resemblance model of categorization.
This study tested the hypothesis that undesirable members are salient in a small group, while desirable members become salient in a larger group. One hundred and forty-five students were randomly assigned to twelve conditions, and read sentences desirably, undesirably, or neutrally describing each member of a college student club. The twelve clubs had one of three group sizes: 13, 39, or 52, and the proportion of the desirable or undesirable to the neutral was either 11:2 or 2:11, forming a three-way (3×2×2) factorial. Twelve subjects each were asked to make proportion judgments and impression ratings. Results indicated that proportion of the undesirable members was over estimated when the group size was 13, showing negativity bias, whereas proportion of the desirable was overestimated when the size was 52, displaying positivity bias. The size 39 showed neither positivity nor negativity bias. These results along with those from impression ratings suggested that salience of member desirability interacted with group size. It is argued that illusory correlation and group cognition studies may well take these effects into consideration.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of job satisfaction to job difficulty and worthiness, reported by the clinical psychologists who worked at medical institutions. A mail survey of 748 clinical psychologists working at hospital and clinics revealed the following results. First, job satisfaction was related more to job situation than job content. Also, job satisfaction was low among those who worked at non-university psychiatric or geriatric hospitals, who did not practice psychotherapy, and who were not in education, research, or management. In addition, compared to the high job satisfaction group, the low group perceived more incongruity between institutional climate and their psychological work, felt being less valued by other professionals, were less able to function fully as a practicing psychologist, and experienced more role ambiguity as a clinical psychologist in a hospital setting.
The purpose of this study was to examine changes in organizational communication behavior in an elementary school during the pre- and post-innovation periods. The turning point of the pre- and post-innovation periods were determined by transference of decision making systems in the school. Data were collected through paritcipant observation, and the analyses indicated the following results. Compared to the pre-innovation period, during the post-innovation period, 1) overall communication level increased; 2) discussions, rational persuasions, and proposals increased, while assertions decreased as the contents of communication; and 3) the number of those who spoke at teaching staff meetings increased. Concerning downward communication, 1) rational persuasive communication was used most frequently throughout the pre- and post-innovation periods; and 2) communication suggesting a compromise increased during the post-innovation period. These findings were discussed in terms of organizational effectiveness of the school.
Previous stiudies showed that attentional task performance of schizopherenics was significantly inferior to that of normals. The classical Stroop Color-Word Interference Test is an example of such attentional tasks and performance on the “reverse” Stroop task is reported to discriminate schizo-pherenics from normals better than the regular Stroop task. These results suggest that schizophrenics are more susceptive to “reverse” Stroop interference in reading incongruent word-color combinations than normals. The group version of the Stroop and reverse-Stroop Color-Word Test, where the respose is to choose a matching alternative, was used to test the hypothesis. The results virtually supported the hypothesis. In addition, interference was closely related to the patient's control of impulsiveness. It was suggested that schizophrenics have generation (or translation) deficits between differents codes.
It has been demonstrated that stress conditions for babies such as a brief mother-infant separation cause the nasal skin temperature to drop. Changes in skin temperature may be taken as a representative sample of bodily reaction correlated with emotional changes. The purpose of this study is to investigate nasal skin temperature changes under loud noise situation. Fifty-two undergraduates were divided into two groups. Each group had 13 male and 13 female subjects. One group was given 100 dB and another was given 45 dB white noise. The Infrared Telethermograph Imager was used to measure nasal skin temperature changes. The results showed that the nasal skin temperature under 100 dB white noise decreased by about 0.5°C. However, under 45 dB no significant change was found. These findings suggest that the facial skin temperature will be one of the promising indices to detect various emotional changes.
The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of information generation on incidental memory of words. Subjects in the subject-generated group were asked to generate a converging associate of three targets in each triplet. Subjects in the experimenter-provided group were asked to rate the relation between targets and a paired-presented word on 5-point scale. Each subject in both groups were given an unexpected free recall test. Recall performance for targets in each unrelated triplet in the subject-generated group was higher than in the experimenter-provided one. Conditional probablity of recalling targets given relational information was an index of effectiveness of within-item elaboration. This index was higher in the subject-generated group. These results were interpreted as showing that the effect of information generation was caused by the effectiveness of within-item elaboration.
The purpose is to make an appropriate list of terms that describe person's moment-to-moment changes in moods during psychodrama sessions. Seventy nurse students participated in a series of psychodrama sessions, consisting of a session of warming-up and two sessions of role playing. They rated their moods at the beginning of the sessions and after each session, on a five-point scale for each of the 55 terms, which were supposed to cover all kinds of moods during psychodrama sessions. After analyzing variations (using factor analyses) of subjects' ratings, three factors were found to be sufficient for describing their moods, and the terms in the list were eventually reduced to sixteen. Changes of moods analyzed through the ratings of sixteen scales were related significantly with subjects' performances of warming-up and role playing.
The effect of short intertrial interval as a phrasing cue on the reinforcement-pattern learning was investigated in a rat experiment using a runway. In the acquisition session, 20 rats were trained for NNR sequence in which two nonreinforced trials were followed by a reinforced one with equal ITI of 30 min. In the sequence-additon session, a new sequence with consisting of three nonreinforced trials with 30-min ITI was added 30 min and 30 s after the original sequence of trials for Group L-ITI and for Group S-TNT, respectively. Rats of Group S-INT responded on trials 4-6 with the similar pattern of running speed as they showed on Trials 1-3 from the second day. In Group L-ITI, the running speed on Trial 4 did not decrease. This suggests that Group S-INT rats learn to use the ITI of 30 s as a phrasing cue not on the first day but from the second day on. The phrasing effect of short ITI (30 s) was discussed in comparison with that of longer ITI (30 min).