The purpose was to examine (1) whether infants are capable of imitation or not and (2) to assess their ability for information processing, specifically for visual perception. Twenty-one infants were presented four kinds of facial expressions (tongue protrusion, opened mouth, mouth protrusion and eye blink) at the ages of six, ten, and fourteen weeks. Infants' responses were videotaped and analyzed. Their behavior indicated that six-week-olds could not differentiate between the four stimuli. They could not imitate the facial expressions, because their perception did not differentiate the stimuli sufficiently yet. Responses by ten- and fourteen-week-olds indicated that their perceptual processes had developed sufficiently to differentiate stimuli, and make some matching behaviors with the processed information. Some matching responses, open mouth and mouth protrusion, were less frequent at fourteen weeks than at ten weeks. However, the overall matching responses were greater among fourteen than ten week olds. Apparently with the development of perceptual processes, matching responses also emerge.
A questionnaire of creative attitudes was developed, and its scores were compared between the U.S. and Japanese college students. The relationship between the scores and problem-solving behavior was also investigated. Creative attitudes were assumed to be a vehicle which enables various creative expression. Items were first selected on the basis of students' descriptions of a creative person, and then were modified to measure characteristics of such a person. Data from the U.S. and Japanese college students were factor-analyzed with oblique procrustes rotation. Varimax solutions were modified to construct the target matrix, and a six-factor solution was obtained. The factors were flexibility, analytical problem solving, entrepreneurship, cooperation, perseverance, and imagination. The U.S. students scored significantly higher on the first four subscales, while the Japanese scored higher on the last two. A comparison of the questionnaire with a less-structured quentionnaire of problem-solving behavior revealed meaningful relationships between creative attitudes and problem solving behaviors.
The time course of lexical ambiguity resolution was investigated using the phonological priming paradigm between polysemous phonogramic Kana words (primes) and compound ideogramic Kanji words (targets) in Japanese. Subjects made the lexical decision under rapid serial visual presentation of sentence contexts, primes, and targets. In Experiment 1, the context-dependent associative strength of target words and prime-target stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) were manipulated. At 300-ms SOA, results of reaction time showed facilitation effect for both contextually appropriate and inappropriate target words. At 500-ms SOA, while the facilitation of reaction time held for contextually appropriate targets, this effect was not obtained for contextually inappropriate targets. In Experiment 2, the context-independent associative strength was manipulated in addition to the two variables of Experiment 1. Results of reaction time replicated the multiple access at short SOA and the context-dependent selective access at long SOA. The results of error rates indicated a greater context-independent facilitation effect at 300-ms SOA than at 500-ms SOA. These findings provide evidence in support of the transition from multiple access, which is influenced by context-independent associative strength, to context-dependent access in the process of resolving lexical ambiguity.
In a theory-based concept model, the theory is often treated as implicit. In order to specify the conditions under which people prefer to construct categories of family resemblance, thereby explicating such an implicit theory, two experiments of people-sorting tasks were conducted. The first experiment was based on the paradigm of defining family resemblance in terms of independent sets of matching and mismatching values of personality traits. The second explored the idea that inter-property relationships rather than independent personality traits served to organize categories of people. In both studies, participants with low cognitive complexity persisted in sorting people on the basis of family resemblance, while those with high cognitive complexity continued to sort them along a single dimension. The results indicated that choice of sorting strategies, such as family resemblance or dimension, was related to an aspect of the person's implicit personality theory, namely cognitive complexity. Therefore, it was argued, a theory-based concept model and implicit personality theory were closely related.
This study aimed at investigating whether or not any instances are instantiated (or inferred) from the category in a single sentence when the sentence was comprehended. One hundred and twelve students read 75 pairs of sentences, where the first sentence included a category term and the second sentence included a term of its instance. The comprehension times for the second sentences were measured. It was found that the context of the first sentences, which had instantiating information, affected the comprehension times on the condition where the first sentence and the second were in anaphoric relation, but such context effect was not observed on the condition where the second sentence was independent of the first. This result showed that neither instantiation nor inference of instances occurred in comprehending single sentences and that the context effect could be explained by the degree of difficulty in integrating the information of both sentences at the time of comprehending the second sentences.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of various factors on the attitudes that Asian students have toward Japan and its people. The factors studied were economic conditions, length of stay, Japanese language ability, experience of discrimination and friendship with Japanese people. One hundred and sixty-three (163) Asian students living in this country answered a questionnaire, and the data were analyzed with path analysis. The results showed that economic conditions and length of stay were negatively related to discrimination and positively to friendship, and discrimination was negatively related to the students' attitudes toward Japan and the Japanese and friendship positively to the attitudes toward the Japanese. Proficiency in the Japanese language was not related to the attitudes. The study also indicated that Asian students' image of the Japanese over time could be graphed as a U-shaped curve; the Japanese people were seen as friendly by those who have stayed less than 24 months, as most unfriendly by those staying between 37 to 48 months, and as friendly again after 48 months of stay.
The purpose was to examine effects of subject's familiarity with experimenter, and the task orientation of experimenter towards preschool children's communication in a problem solving situation. After subjects were given one of three different information about a target card, they were asked to identify the target one. However, subjects were unable to identify the trarget one without questions. The main results were as follows: (1) 5-year-olds made more questions and chose the target more often than 4-year-olds, (2) High familiarity group made more questions and chose the target more often than low one, (3) Task-oriented group made more questions and chose the target more often than non-oriented one, and (4) Interaction of familiarity and the task-orientation was not significant. These results suggested that familiarity and task-orientation affected rate of communication occurrence in problem solving by preschool children.
The relationships between target and taxonomic or thematic stimuli of 70 triads were assessed, employing rating scales and factor analysis. Four types of triads were constructed: four triads with high taxonomic and high thematic relations to the taget stimuli (H-H), those with high taxonomic and low thematic relations (H-L), those with low taxonomic and high thematic relations (L-H1, L-H2). These triads were presented to 5-year-olds and adults. Adults responded more taxonomically than children in all triads. Children responded less thematically in H-L than in other three kinds of triads, whereas adults responded more taxonomically in H-H and H-L than in other kinds of triads. The results suggest that (a) children are susceptible to thematic relations, while adults are to taxonomic relations, and (b) knowledge of the concept names common to taxonomic pairs are important to facilitate taxonomic organization.
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of script familiarity in the lexical decision task with Japanese Hiragana and Katakana words. Words were printed in both familiar and unfamiliar script, and word length was varied from three to five letters. In Experiment 1, subjects were 24 undergraduate students, and effect of script familiarity and word length on reaction times was investigated. In Experiment 2, subjects were 24 undergraduate students. In this study, subjects were instructed to read letters from right to left. The results of two experiments showed that the reaction times to words printed in unfamiliar script were increased as word length increased. But the reaction times to words printed in familiar script were not affected by word length. When subjects read the letters from right to left, that was quite unusual condition, the reaction times to words printed in both familiar and unfamiliar script were increased with their word length. These results suggest that visually familiar letter sequence should be considered as one unit to read.