This study investigated the attitude towards humor and the relationship among the attitude, aggression and altruism. Four hundred and seven subjects answered the questionnaires consisting of (1) items about attitude toward humor, (2) items about aggression and altruism, and (3) items about humorous statements, frequently heared in negative situations. Factor analysis revealed that the attitude toward humor consists of two factors; (a) preference for aggressive humor and (b) preference for playful humor. The former is related to aggression and altruism, while the latter is related to altruism only. The items about humorous statements frequently heard in negative situations suggested that preference for aggressive humor is related to aggressive behavior, while preference for playful humor is related to moderation of the atomosphere.
This study examined the effects that communicative messages' relevance to speaker vs. hearer has on usage of sentence-final expressions. The expressions studied were indirect forms such as sodesu, yodesu, mitaidesu and the particle ne. In Experiments 1 and 2, subjects were asked to write what they would say in certain situations which were described to them. When the speaker alone supposedly knew what he/she was to communicate (Experiment 1), use of indirect forms increased when the message was relevant to the hearer but not to the speaker. The particle ne was rarely used in such a situation. When both the speaker and the hearer assumedly knew what was to be transmitted by the speaker (Experiment 2), both ne and indirect forms were used more often when the communicative content was relevant to the hearer than to the speaker. Experiment 3 demonstrated that direct forms were judged to be more natural when used for important than for unimportant topics. A model for differential usage of sentence-final expressions in the Japanese language was proposed.
The purpose is to examine the influence of three factors on person perception, (a) the degree of facial attractiveness, (b) the order of presentation of the faces and the verbal information of the same stimulus person and (c) the sex of the perceivers. Seventy-one male undergraduates and 89 female undergraduates were asked to rate the personalities of the two positive and two negative stimulus persons of the opposite sex, who were selected by each subject in preliminary experiment, and asked to choose what kind of relation they would have with them. Positive or negative face was presented either before or after verbal information. The main results were as follows. (a) Generally, positive faces exerted greater influence than negative faces. (b) Faces presented after verbal information were more influential than those presented before it (recency effect). (c) The influence of face on male subjects was greater than that on female subjects.
One hundred and twelve (112) junior high school students made ratings of their ideal and actual selves, and of other persons of same sex whom they liked or disliked, using uni-polar scales of 42 positive and 42 negative traits words. Positive and negative ideal-self rating scores correlated with those for actual-self and others. At the same time, rating scores on important traits for each subject which gained the highest score in ideal-self rating differed among the actual self and the liked other and disliked other-the liked other was rated more positively than the disliked other, though self-esteem affected relative positiveness of actual self to liked or disliked others. However, no such differences were found on unimportant traits which gained lower scores in ideal-self rating. These results seem to indicate that both positive and negative ideal selves provide cognitive framework for perception of self and others.
The computer and booklet versions of MINI personality inventories, which contained 250 items, shortened and revised version of MMPI-1, were administered to 81 university students simultaneously. The results of t-test (corresponding sample) showed the significant difference for the raw scores of D, Pd, and Si. The booklet administered MINI gave slightly higher scores than the computerized MINI, however, the correlation analyses showed the salient coefficients between both versions. The analyses of response frequencies for each item showed no significant difference. Results suggested that the slight change in norms was needed for booklet version, because the MINI was standardized by computer form.
The purpose of the present study was to examine sequentially the evaluations of the self and others in psychotherapy using the Rating Grid Method, one of the Repertory Grid Techniques. A construct system of Subject A was composed of “pleasant-painful”, “steady-hopeless”, “stable-anxious”, “comfortableirritable”, “feeling of freedom-feeling of pressure”, “specific-vague”, “strong-week”, and “refreshinggloomy”. That of Subject B consisted of “fearful-not fearful”, “composed-restless”, “pleasant-painful”, “dignified-undignified”, “eager-lazy”, “realistic-mysterious”, “perfectionism-slipshod”, and “decisiveirresolute”. The evaluations of the two subjects in the Rating Grid Method were analyzed using three-mode factor analysis. These results were then compared with diagnoses obtained through psychotherapy.
Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether articulatory suppression and memory updating affect phonological similarity effect. In the first experiment, 24 subjects were tested for immediate serial recall of visually presented letter sequences in which letters were either phonologically similar or dissimilar within each sequence. Each block of the letter sequences was to be remembered under silent reading or articulatory suppression conditions. The results showed the advantage of the dissimilar condition over the similar condition in the silent reading condition. On the other hand, this phonological similarity effect was not shown in the articulatory suppression condition. Twelve subjects participated in the second experiment on the effect of memory updating. Memory updating reduced the recall performance, but it did not affect the phonological similarity effect. These results were interpreted in terms of the working memory model.
The purpose is to review the trend in “person-situation controversy”, and to comment on recent literature and their implications. “Person-situation controversy” is related to whether people do or do not have consistent personality traits. Although the topic is not at all new, it aroused a great deal of interest since the publication of Mischel's (1968) “personality and assessment”. Here, we began with Mischel's criticism against the trait approach, then, we discussed two opposite viewpoints of situationism and interactionism. Situationism is the idea that situational variables influence more on the behavior of people than personality traits, while interactionism is the idea that personality traits and situations interact with each other to influence behavior. Furthermore, this article focussed on three conceptual issues, such as consistency, prediction, and meaning of traits. Finally, the reconsideration and evaluation of the two viewpoints were presented from a viewpoint of personality psychology.