Hundred-seventy-nine children, 5- and 6-year-olds, were assigned to one of three groups; basic-context group (BC), intermediate-context group (IC), and superordinate-context group (SC). Each child listened to the first half of a story, which was the same for three groups except that it contained a basic-level word (e.g. apple) for BC group, an intermediate-level word (e.g. fruit) for IC group, and a superordinate-level word (e.g. food) for SC group. Immediately after the listening the child was asked to infer the later half of the story. Main findings were as follows: (1) in BC and IC conditions 6-year-olds made more inferences based on the informed concept-level than 5-year-olds, but in SC condition the age difference was not observed; (2) both error analysis and verbal report showed that most inference errors resulted from the overextension beyond the informed concept-level.
The primary purpose of this study was to compare the changes in baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) with those in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during mental arithmetic (MA) and reaction time (RT) tasks. BRS was assessed by the sequence scanning method (Bertinieri et al., 1988) combined with the vascular unloading technique that enables beat-by-beat measurement in systolic blood pressure. Twenty-eight male college students were given both MA and RT tasks with the order counterbalanced. Results indicated significant differences in BRS and RSA reactivity that seems to be evidence for a stronger vagal withdrawal in MA. Reactivity in RSA was correlated more closely with respiratory variables (respiration rate, tidal volume, and end-tidal CO2) than in BRS. These findings suggest that BRS is more suitable for estimating cardiac parasympathetic control because of its greater independence from respiratory activity. The results were discussed concerning the patterning of cardiorespiratory stress responses.
The degree of integration of contrasting traits in the person may be an index of personal maturity. This study examined such an integration process from the framework of individual and social orientedness. Subjects, 118 male and 329 female students, were asked to fill out an orientedness scale, a short version of TSPS: a measure of the two-sidedness of personality, and a self-esteem scale. Results showed that for those high on one-sidedness, individual orientedness turned out to be the sole factor, clearly bisecting those high and low on self-esteem and other traits. High correlations of self-esteem with traits like leadership and activity seem to indicate that the highly one-sided use a single dimension for their judgments. On the other hand, when one-sidedness was low, both individual and social orientedness became necessary, and ratings of personality traits moderate. Self-esteem correlated with flexibility and deliberateness, showing both active and reflective tendencies. As for the orientedness, individual orientedness is related to active traits and self-esteem, while social orientedness correlated with both active and reflective traits, implying moderate characteristics for the person's personality.
Although a tautological sentence does not give us any literal information, it normally conveys some meaning. This study investigated the acceptability and figurativeness of Japanese nominal tautology in terms of the repeated nouns within it and its overall context. One hundred subjects were asked to read five or six different nominal tautologies and (1) to write down situations considered appropriate for each of the tautologies, (2) to paraphrase them, and (3) to rate figurativeness of both the utterance and its paraphrase with respect to the situation imagined. The results showed that the tautologies composed of concrete nouns which have socially evaluated referents (e.g., houseki [jewel] wa [is] houseki [jewel] dearu.) tended to be considered more acceptable than those composed of abstract nouns which have neutral referents (e.g., gen-in [cause] wa [is] gen-in [cause] dearu.), and that tautology was highly acceptable when the context included words whose meanings were opposed to the meanings of the repeated nouns. These findings suggest that tautologies are more easily understood within a context which causes a negative, rather than positive or neutral, evaluation of referents of the repeated nouns.
This article describes the construction of a 15-item short-form of the Scale of Egalitarian Sex Role Attitudes (SESRA-S) based on factor analysis and examines the reliability and the validity of the short-form using data from a sample of 109 men and 93 women. SESRA-S is a self report measure of the level of egalitarian attitudes toward the roles of men and women. Its reliability coefficient was .91, the test-retest coefficient with a four-week interval .89, and the correlation coefficient with the full form .94. These support the reliability of the short-form. Evidence of the construct validity was derived from the confirmation of five hypotheses regarding gender, educational attainment, women's employment status, age, and surname change after marriage. The findings of the present study provide evidence for the utility of the short-form as a satisfactory and time-efficient substitute for the SESRA full form.
Six kinds of orthogonal Geomax factor rotation criteria, one initial version of which was proposed by Kashiwagi (1965), were discussed as for convergences. First, the basic principle of orthogonal Geomax factor rotation criteria was outlined, and the need to examine convergences of these criteria was stressed. Second, the differences among these six criteria above were discussed briefly. Third, the mathematical criterion for convergence was discussed, and fourth, eight kinds of data to be used were explained. And, finally, three of the six criteria were recommended, after the experimental examination concerning rate of convergence of factors.
A speech act may be described as a sentence corresponding to locutionary act (L-sentence), illocutionary act (I-sentence), or perlocutionary act (P-sentence). The purpose of our research is to examine the effects of descriptive forms of speech acts in stories on recognition memory. Subjects read stories and recieved unexpected sentence recognition memory test either immediately, an hour later, or four hours later. They rated the degree of confidence of recognition judgement on 7-point scale. The results were as follows: (a) The sentence which had been actually presented in text was recognized correctly with higher confidence, independent of the descriptive forms, (b) The descriptive form in text did not influence the recognition rating by itself, (c) P-sentence tended to be judged as ‘not actually presented in text’ compared with L-sentence or I-sentence, (d) The recognition time was shortest under the 4-hours-delay condition. These results were discussed in terms of memory representation of sentences and recognition processes.
The present study attempts to construct an Experiential Time Perspective Scale, which measures not only the experience of personal future, but also those of the present and the past and, it will measure, at the same time, two aspects of future, namely, hopefulness and goal-directedness. This scale was administered to 460 university and professional school students. The results showed rather high internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Correlational analyses with Time Attitude Scale (Nuttin & Lens, 1985) showed convergent and discriminant validity in each subscale, except for the dimension of hopefulness. However, the different relationships of subscales with fear for the future and self-esteem confirmed the validity of this scale including that of hopefulness.
An experiment was conducted to compare two models of gender-related schematic processing: Bern's gender schema theory (1981) and self-schema theory by Markus, Crane, Bernstein, and Saladi (1982). While the former argues for a construct that is unidimensional, the latter proposes separate masculine and feminine schemata. Two hundred and thirty-six college students (111 males and 125 females) completed Bem Sex Role Inventory, and then estimated subjective percentages of males and females who had each trait of BSRI. The subjective percentages were used to compute sex-typing scores. After the questionnaires, the subjects attempted free recall of the inventory items, and clustering scores were computed from the results. Data analyses, including those of covariance structure, yielded the following results: 1) The fit of the gender schema model was better than the self schema model. 2) A strong gender schema was related to a high-congruent self-concept score, a low sex-incongruent self-concept score, a high sex-congruent sex-typing score, a high sex-incongruent sex-typing score, and a high sex-congruent clustering score. As a whole, the results could be summarized to support the gender schema theory.
The thalidomide catastrophe in 1959-1962 has given great impetus to the basic research interests in the adverse effects of various insults on germ cells, embryos, fetuses, and immature postnatal individuals. It has called further attention to behavioral ability to learn or respond appropriately to a changing environment in the offspring that are prenatally exposed to various insults, even though the insults have negligible or no congenital malformations. The new field, behavioral teratology, obtained independence from its mother field teratology in the mid 1970s. The fact that most behavioral alterations can be traceable to adverse influences in the environment does not necessarily mean that it has given insight into the mechanism by which these behavioral deviations took place in developmental processes. Cause-and-effect relationships in behavioral teratogenicity are not always apparent, and thereby behavioral teratology retains distinctive methodological problems.