The problem of serious occupatinal fatigue of software operators has come up for discussion. Along with the outcome of a survey showing that their working hours are longer than those of other types of workers, with the former reporting for duty unconsciously early in the morning, it is pointed out that their time estimation and crookedness of time cognition are reduced. As a result of the survey, it was also found that in visual display terminal task, the work is carried on while receiving real-time feedback, and those engaged in development work, set their goal to complete a specific amount of work within a specific time-limit. Thus, in order to examine the effects of these two factors on these workers' performance and their subjective time estimation, 76 subjects (undergraduate students) were asked to engage in task of six terms. The results indicated that the group with its goal set and real-time feedback given had higher performance and motivation for task, and showed more time reduction than did other groups to a significant extent. It is noteworthy that it was proved that the subjects were not conscios of this time reduction.
Tsujioka's Children's Report of Parental Behavior Inventory (EICA) and its modification adapted to the parents were administered to the high school students (75 boys and 63 girls) and their parents. The results were analyzed by means of the Cliff's Procrustian factor analysis. In the first-order factor analysis, very congruent eight primary factors were obtained in two kinds of samples (boy-parents sample and girl-parents sample). These factors were 1. Acceptance in mother, 2. Autonomy in parents, 3. Identification in child, 4. Acceptance in father, 5. Autonomy in child, 6. Control in father, 7. Control in mother, and 8. Emotional support in child. Sex differeces in children were examined in terms of the means and the standard deviations.
Shea and Kohl (1990) reported that acquisition practice with variations of the criterion task leads to better retention than practice on the criterion task alone. The purpose of this study was to determine the locus of this retention benefits. Experimental task was the speed reproduction task. Eighty undergraduate male students were randomly assigned to eight practice conditions differing in the activities performed during the intertrial intervals. All subjects were administered retention test immediately and twenty-four hours after the practice. Results indicated that the retention benefits demonstrated by subjects provided variable practice was produced by the contextual interference effect not by the formation of motor response schema. Results also suggested that both of reconstruction of action plan and elaborative processing resulted in the retention benefits.
For the purpose of examining the determinants of turnover and quitting among working women, 283 working women were sampled from several private corporations in Japan. The causal relation model was named “Career Stress Model among Working Women” since it involved, among others, unique job stressors for working women. The results of path analysis showed that among women, the higher the stressors due to sex discrimination in working spaces, the higher the turnover. Further, the results showed that the lower the job commitment, the higher the quitting. However, since job commitment increases with corporate eagerness towards development of women's careers, corporate efforts to remove all elements of sex discrimination and efforts to implement policies which assist development of women's careers were considered to be important in reducing turnover and quitting among working women.
Twenty undergraduates were required to translate English words into Japanese (Experiment 1) and Japanese words into English (Experiment 2), ignoring distracting pictures. Previous studies suggested that pictorial information have direct access to its conceptual node. If the process of translating words proceeds via concept which is common to two languages, it is expected that interference or facilitation from pictures is observed in subjects' translation process. The results showed the interference from pictures in translating both English and Japanese words, but the amount of interference was not influenced by the semantic relatedness between words and pictures. The lack of influence of semantic relatedness suggested that translating process did not proceed via concept. The result of the present study was discussed in terms of word association hypothesis and concept mediation hypothesis.
The purpose of this study was to elucidate developmental changes in self-evaluation maintenance processes, and examine their relationship to childhood depression. Two questionnaires were administered to two hundred and one (201) elementary school children and three hundred and one (301) junior high school students. They were asked to rate their own performance on school subjects and schoolrelated activities and those of close and distant classmates, as well as the degree of relevance to their selves of each school subject and school-related activity. Their actual school performance indicated that not only fifth and sixth graders and junior high school students, but also third and fourth grade children showed self-evaluation maintenance. In addition, it was found that self-evaluation maintenance was related to some indices, separately measured, of childhood depression, especially cognitive measures.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the erects of the physiological arousal and the priorsubconscious processing of hostility-related words upon the cognitive complexity in person perception. First, sixteen male and 16 female college students performed a cognitive task in which they processed hostility-related words or neutral words unconsciously in a high arousal or a normal arousal state. In the second ostensibly unrelated task, the subjects were presented with an ambiguous description of target person's mild hostile behavior and they were asked to rate the impression of the target person on several SD-trait scales. It was found that the higher the subjects' arousal level was, the simpler the cognitive complexity became. Also, when the subjects processed neutral words in the high arousal state, individual differences of the impression were the largest. The effects of hostility-related words to decrease the individual differences in the high arousal state, however, were not found. These results indicate that physiological arousal may have an important role in the mechanisms of social cognition.
The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the semantic processing of words written in Kanji and Kana in the normal right cerebral hemisphere of the brain. The sentence judgement task required subjects to judge whether the laterally presented word written in Kanji or Kana was congruous with the meaning of the sentence which was presented prior to the sentence judgement task. Concrete and abstract words were employed in the experiment. A manual reaction time measure was used to assess the relative efficiency of lateral stimulus-response pathways in processing linguistic information. Results showed that the subjects significantly judged the concrete words written in Kanji or Kana faster than abstract words when they were presented in the left visual field; there were no significant reaction time differences in the judgement of both concrete and abstract words presented in the right visual field. These results were interpreted as supporting the view that the right hemisphere of the brain can play a functional role in processing words to some degree.
This study examines the relationship between the process of cognition and solution in contradictory situations and evaluation of the span comprehended by “now” (Japanese ima) in it. Eighty-eight subjects were asked to express the span of “now” in each of 24 contradictory situations, selected for and graded according to degree of both contradictoriness and solvability. The subjects expressed their evaluation on a bi-directional cline, comprising 21 time categories: in this cline, “now” is positioned in the center, and the categories of second, minute, hour, day, week, year, generation, century, and infinity to both the left for the past and the right for the future. Three coordinates emerged from the data, applying Dual Scaling. The first indicated that future-oriented solutions in contradictory situations generate wider spans of “now” than did past ones, the second that negative solutions to contradictions generate a less realistic interrelation between its self and his outside world than did positive ones, and the third that the cognitive process and that by which contradictory situations are solved contain a third dimension, different from both a past-future dimension and a positive-negative dimension.
There have been two views on how depressed people perceive themselves. One argues that they attend excessively to negative aspects of their selves. The other views that the depressed attend evenly to positive and negative sides of themselves, and the nondepressed persons attend more to their positive aspects. This study examined these views of cognitive bias, through a comparison of self referent judgments of trait adjcetives by mildly depressed and nondepressed groups of people. The Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure the severity of depression, and mildly depressed and nondepressed students, 342 in total, made self-referent judgments with a list of trait adjectives. The list consisted of pairs of semantically similar adjectives with contrasting desirability. With negative words, the mildly depressed tended to judge themselves more negatively than the nondepressed control. With positive words, no significant differences were found between the judgments by the two groups. It was concluded that negativity bias in self judgments was characteristic of the depressed persons.