The efficiency of working memory capacity was measured with the Japanese reading span test (Japanese RST), which was developed based on the Carnegie-Mellon RST (Daneman & Carpenter, 1980). The correlation between the Japanese and the CMU RST was found to be highly significant. The present Japanese RST seems to predict reading efficiency in the same way as does the CMU RST. The Japanese RST was found to be correlated not only with memory span but with reading comprehension. However, it was not correlated with existing verbal intelligence tests.
The present study was conducted to investigate the intergroup behaviour from the perspective of social identity theory. It was predicted that (a) when group membership was based on trivial categorization (e.g., by drawing lots), minority group members would be more conscious of their social identity, and favour their own group more in reward distribution than majority group members; (b) when based on value-loaded categorization (e.g., by social attitudes), both minority group and majority group members would favour their own group; (c) both minority group and majority group members would perceive converted members, who move away from their initial attitudes, as a threat to their social identity, and discriminate them. Results from three experiments under the minimal group paradigm, with undergraduate students, supported these predictions. Findings were discussed in terms of salience of social identity in categorization of minority versus majaority, and the impact of anonymity in the minimal group paradigm. They were also discussed to compare the theory with belief congruence theory, which argues that attraction due to similarity of belief is the cause of ingroup favouritism.
The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in person perception due to changes in interpersonal closeness. Immediately after beginning the first semester, four female university freshmen belonging to a student club were asked: 1) to tell what they thought of or knew about three fellow club members (stimulus persons; SPs); and 2) to indicate liking for SPs, and rate them in terms of factors related to interpersonal attraction. The interviews, with the same interviewees and SPs, were repeated seven more times during the following six months. Content of their statements for each SP was analyzed, and results indicated: 1) Liking for SPs was positively correlated with the frequency of statements concerning SPs' disposition, but negatively with that of SP's objective information; 2) the more distant the subject-SP relationship became after initial closeness, the more the frequency of statements about SP's objective information, and the less that of SPs' disposition. It was suggested that self other relationship had an effect on person perception.
This study examined effects of explicitness of achievement goals and perceived probabilities of goal attainment on self assessment. Subjects were 251 undergraduate students. They were first asked, as measure of explicitness of goals, if they hope to acquire good capability in scientific research, and second how they perceived their probabilities of goal attainment. Self-assessment behavior was measured by task choice and task preference for four tasks which differ in diagnosticity. The main results were as follows. (a) The most diagnostic task was chosen more often by the subjects who both had an explicit goal and perceived the probability of goal attainment high, and those who didn't have an explicit goal and perceived the probability low. (b) On task preference, the effects of goal explicitness and perceived probability were not found. These results suggest that self-assessment be done for future self-enhancement.
The study investigated the effect of observational goals (i.e., impression formation and memory) on the process of observing ongoing behavior of others. Specifically, the amount of behavior extraction was studied. Forty-nine subjects were randomly assigned to impression and memory groups, and asked to watch a ten-minute video clip featuring a male actor in daily activities. The subjects in the impression group were instructed to press a button when they saw an impression-relevant action and to release it when it was over. Similarly, the subjects in the memory group were instructed to press the button when a memory-relevant action appeared and to release it when it came to an end. Results showed that the memory subjects extracted actions more frequently and in longer duration than the impression subjects. Furthermore, the memory subjects recalled more behaviors than the impression subjects, whereas the latter subjects used more personality-trait descriptions than the former.
Katakana words (e.g., _??__??__??_=ka me ra) were modified in three different ways to create pseudowords that were presented to 36 Japanese readers in a lexical decision task. In Conditions 1 and 2, the first Kana symbol was changed, but in the former, the pronunciation of the initial consonant was kept intact (e.g., _??__??__??_+ko me ra), while in the latter the whole mora was changed (e.g., _??__??__??_=so me ra). In Condition 3, two morae were changed (e.g., _??__??__??_=so ki ra), creating a pseudo-word which was two Kana symbols different from any real word. If the pseudo-word gains access to lexical information, it will interfere with the pseudo-word classification response. Such a result was observed for Condition 1 (the mean RT=770ms) which significantly differed from both Condition 2 (735ms) and Condition 3 (720ms). Therefore, the interference effect was a phonological one, which indicates that Japanese readers must be sensitive to phonemic units when processing Kana. Thus, the smallest unit of phonological processing in Japanese is not necessarily the mora. The results are explained within the framework of interactive-activation model whereby phoneme and mora units are both activated when processing Katakana pseudo-words.
This research examined whether an event sequence of spatially ordered stimuli can be learned implicitly in a modified procedure of the task developed by Nissen and Bullemer (1987). A stimulus (asterisk) was presented in one of four spatial locations on each trial and subjests responded by pressing a corresponding key and they were not instructed to learn the sequence. In a 100-trial block, two kinds of 10-trial sequences, one was a repeating sequence and the other was a random one, occured alternately. After eight blocks were admistered, although all subjects were not aware of the presence of the repeating sequence, it was learned as assesed by performance measure, that is, reduction of reaction time. It is concluded that learning of the repeating sequence was implicit because subjects had neither intention to learn nor awareness of the repeating sequence.
In a typical study of implicit personality theory, correlation coefficients among personality-trait ratings were computed across several stimulus persons. The purpose of this study was to suggest that it would be more effective to isolate each stimulus person from such data, and then obtain correlations between traits across subjects for each stimulus person. The present study examined, with female subjects, the comparability of structures in personality perception for three types of stimulus persons: (1) combined data from two stimulus friends of her own sex, one each of whom she likes or dislikes, (2) a friend of her own sex whom she likes, and (3) herself. Results yielded highly similar structures in factor solutions for data from the self and a friend of her own sex whom she likes. Furthermore, “agreeableness” and “social desirability”, presumably the two component factors of the “evaluation” dimension of the semantic differential, had a positive and low correlation. On the other hand, these two factors had a positive and high correlation when the combined data of (1) were used. This high correlation can be explained as a result of combining two completely different distributions for ratings of the persons liked and disliked.
As the opportunity to contact with related areas has increased, the study of the experimental analysis of behavior has experienced revolutionary changes. Some of the most active and important areas-studies of choice, comparative cognition, and human language-are reviewed to acquaint readers. Studies of CHOICE have linked to the molar theories of behavioral economics and behavioral ecology, which promoted research of choice by animals under uncertainty conditions. Further approach has been made to integrate the molar and molecular analyses on the basis of the ideas of behavior dynamics. COMPARATIVE COGNITION is a part of a larger field including cognitive science, behavioral neuroscience, and biological science. Recent developments, aided with a comparative perspective, made significant contributions to our understanding of the phylogeny and ontogeny of cognition. Advances in analysis of human behavior provided tools to study behavioral aspects of semantics, syntax, and pragmatics of HUMAN LANGUAGE. Using the paradigm of stimulus equivalence, the emergence of stimulus relations, stimulus-stimulus networks, hierarchical structure of verbal behavior, and other language-related behaviors have been investigated.