These studies examined preschoolers' understanding of characteristics of friends. “Friends” were defined as children of the same sex who chose each other as good friends, and “acquaintances” were those who knew each other but did not mutually chosen. In Study 1, 30 five- to six-year-old children were asked how they expected their friends and acquaintances to behave toward them in various situations, such as play, help, and trust situations. It was found that they tended to expect their friends in play and trust situations to behave more kindly than their acquaintances. In Study 2, they were asked how they themselves would behave toward their friends and acquaintances in the same situations. They replied that they would behave more kindly toward their friends than toward their acquaintances in all the situations. These results were interpreted as preschoolers showing a consistent understanding of their friends' behavior, as well as a clear comprehension of reciprocity in their relationship with their friends.
A transferred employee may take his family along (taido-funin), or have to temporarily move and live alone (tanshin-funin), leaving the family behind. Two hundred and thirty-nine (239) taido-funin transferees, 247 tanshin-funin transferees, and 225 non-transferred employees completed a 31-item questionnaire designed to measure stress responses on the present level. Factor analysis found five factors for the stress: feeling of instability, poor health, loneliness, loss of self-confidence, and feeling of elation. Results indicated that (1) in general, tanshin-funin transferees felt more stressful than the oher groups. However, family separation might not be as bad as expected, because while it did cause loneliness and poor health and decrease feeling of elation, the transferee self-confidence was actually increased. (2) The transferee rank did not affect the effects of family separation. (3) Besides, stress responses were measured on 31-items on the difference between present and past levels. According to the results, tanshin-funin transferees believed that psychological stress due to family separation was especially harmful. The effects of family separation depended also on the conceptual levels of measurement.
Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of visual similarity on picture categorization (Experiment 1) and picture identification (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1 subjects took more time to categorize the pictures of fruits, visually similar to vegetables, than the words which showed their names. On the contrary, subjects took less time to categorize the pictures of animals, visually dissimilar to fruits and vegetables, than the words. In Experiment 2, it took more time for subjects to identify the pictures of animals primed by the same category members than those primed by fruits. The pictures of animals showed the highest visual similarity among three categories. Those results suggest that visual similarity could affect picture categorization and identification as semantic similarity could. We also discussed the notions of visual representation and category specificity in semantic processing.
For the purpose of selecting items in a test, this study presented a viewpoint of psychologically optimal difficulty level, as well as measurement efficiency, of items. A paper-and-pencil test (P & P) composed of hard, moderate and easy subtests was administered to 298 students at a university. A computerized adaptive test (CAT) was also administered to 79 students. The items of both tests were selected from Shiba's Word Meaning Comprehension Test, for which the estimates of parameters of two-parameter item response model were available. The results of P & P research showed that the psychologically optimal success level would be such that the proportion of right answers is somewhere between .75 and .85. A similar result was obtained from CAT research, where the proportion of about .8 might be desirable. Traditionally a success rate of .5 has been recommended in adaptive testing. In this study, however, it was suggested that the items of such level would be too hard psychologically for many examinees.
The first purpose of this study was to examine and define rivalry as a form of interpersonal relationship. The second was to investigate what factors most affected the interpersonal attraction between rivals. University students were indiviaually interviewed and asked whether or not they had any current or past rivals. If they had any, they were then asked to describe some aspects of their rivalry, such as the situation in which it occurred, its outcomes, the feelings toward the rival, and its effects on their and rivals' behavior. Results showed that rivals were frequently described as competitive partners sharing the same goal, having similar abilities, and affecting each other in positive ways. According to the level of attraction between the rivals, rivalry was categorized into four types: task-oriented, opponent, fellow, and good-friend. In relation to the four rivalry types, three aspects of competition were examined: equal versus unequal, onesided versus mutual, and result-oriented versus person-oriented.
The purpose of this research was to construct a scale to measure the “affective value” of musical pieces and examine the relations between the scale and a multiple mood scale (MMS). In this paper, affective value refers to the quality and intensity of affect. First, 209 female junior college students rated 50 adjectives relevant to the affective tone of music on a five-point scale for five pieces of music. Factor analysis yielded five major factors, and 24 items with high loading on these factors were selected to construct the affective value scale of music (AVSM). Second, 226 female students rated both AVSM and MMS for the same five pieces. Factor analysis showed factor validity of AVSM, and Cronbach's coefficient alpha showed a high internal consistency of each sub-scale of AVSM. Principal component analysis and other analyses showed that there were significant relations between sub-scales of AVSM and MMS. Third, 38 female students rated the scales twice, and test-retest reliability was examined. The results suggest the utility of AVSM.
We conducted two experiments in order to examine abilities of the human visual system to detect three-dimensional mirror-symmetry. In Experiment 1, three kinds of three-dimensional stimulus patterns were presented: (a) three-dimensionally mirror-symmetrical patterns (3-D symmetry), (b) patterns with mirror-symmetry in the frontal plane, but not symmetrical with regard to depth (2-D symmetry), and (c) random patterns. Subjects were required to discriminate among them. Both the reaction time and the discriminability index (d') were measured to estimate the detectability. The results indicate that the visual system can detect three-dimensional mirror-symmetry less easily than two-dimensional symmetry. In Experiment 2, we examined the effects of noise (i.e., asymmetrical constituents of the stimulus display) on the detection of three-dimensional mirror-symmetry. The results show that the detectability increases non-linearly with increase of the SN ratio.
In previous studies (e.g., Kerst & Howard, 1978) it has been shown that remembered sizes were related to actual sizes by a more compressive power function than they were to perceived sizes. These findings have been accounted for by the re-perceptual hypothesis. Two experiments were conducted to test this hypothesis for the size estimation with a geometric stimulus. Thirty undergraduate students participated in each experiment. The effects of the number of dimensions of perceived geometric objects (Experiment 1) and those of stimulus range (Experiment 2) on remembering magnitude were investigated. The major findings from Experiments 1 and 2 were as follows; (1) the power exponents were significantly smaller in the memory conditions than in the perceptual conditions, and (2) the results with 1 dimensional objects (lines, Experiment 1) and with 2 dimensional objects in the larger stimulus range (squares, Experiment 2) were consistent with the re-perceptual hypothesis. Those results were discussed in the relation to the stimulus complexity.
This study investigated the effect of unpleasant mood and involvement on the processing of persuasive communication. It was hypothesized that unpleasant mood would facilitate the processing of a message on a highly self-involving topic but inhibit that on a low self-involving topic. Mood-inducing films were used to induce unpleasant or neutral mood. Results indicated that unpleasant mood facilitated cognitive processing of the message in both the conditions of high and low involvement. Moreover, subjects in unpleasant mood evaluated plausibility of the message and communicator's credibility and likability more carefully than subjects in neutral mood. Consistent with the findings of Schwarz, Bless, and Bohner (1991), the present results indicate that unpleasant mood facilitates elaborated processing.