The purpose of this article is to study interpersonal cognition of resource allocation and individual differences in the cognition. Sixty subjects participated in an experimental game, and 18 individualists and 16 cooperators were selected according to their tendency in resource allocation, which is called social values. Then, they rated resource allocating behavior. Major findings were as follows: (1) Both groups rated “allocating more resource to the partner” as more socially desirable and friendly. (2) Individualists rated “allocating more resource to self, ” which was consistent with their social values, as more socially desirable. They also rated “equal allocation with own resource adjusted” as more socially desirable but less dynamic. (3) Cooperators rated “equal allocation with own resource adjusted, ” which was consistent with their social values, as more socially desirable and friendly. (4) Both groups rated “more resource to self” and “less resource to the partner” as dynamic (active and assertive). The relation between interpersonal cognition and social values is discussed.
Using large texture stimuli (72°×72° or 20°×20°), we investigated spatial properties of texture segregation. In Experiment 1, we used L-like forms, T-like forms, or tilted T-like forms to create a large background texture field, in which a small target region of the odd forms was embedded. The texture display was presented for 255 ms, and subjects were asked to detect the target and to recall its position. The target upright Ts in the tilted Ts and the target tilted Ts in the upright Ts segregated easily. In contrast to our expectation, however, the target upright Ts in the Ls and the target Ls in the upright Ts were detected better in the periphery than in the central area. In Experiment 2, subjects were asked to detect a single target element embedded in the background. The size of the elements was enlarged to that of the target texture region in Experiment 1. The target Ts and Ls were detected better in the central area than in the periphery. These results can be explained by the differential grouping processing and distribution of attention in the visual field.
A hypothetical model about person's independent and interdependent construal of the self was proposed, based on the theories proposed by Markus and Kitayama (1991), Triandis (1989) and Yamaguchi (1994). The purpose of this study was to construct a scale for measuring individual difference on the independent and interdependent construal of the self and to examine its reliability and validity. Four hundred and ninety-four subjects (180 males and 314 females) responded to a questionnaire. Sixteen items were selected for the scale through item analysis. This scale showed one-factor structure and a high reliability. As for the construct validity, the scale showed significant correlations with Collectivism scale, Need for Uniqueness scale and Public Self-Consciousness scale. These results supported the hypothetical model about independent and interdependent construal of the self.
Uniqueness theory explains that extremely high perceived similarity between self and others evokes negative emotional reactions and causes uniqueness seeking behavior. However, the theory conceptualizes similarity so ambiguously that it appears to suffer from low predictive validity. The purpose of the current article is to propose an alternative explanation of uniqueness seeking behavior. It posits that perceived uniqueness deprivation is a threat to self-concepts, and therefore causes self-verification behavior. Two levels of self verification are conceived: one based on personal categorization and the other on social categorization. The present approach regards uniqueness seeking behavior as the personal-level self verification. To test these propositions, a 2 (very high or moderate similarity information)×2 (with or without outgroup information)×2 (high or low need for uniqueness) between-subject factorial-design experiment was conducted with 95 university students. Results supported the self-verification approach, and were discussed in terms of effects of uniqueness deprivation, levels of self-categorization, and individual differences in need for uniqueness.
The purpose of the present study was to examine whether or not the eyewitness suggestibility effect might be obtained with a recognition memory and a source-monitoring test, when an original event consisted of many pictures. In this source-monitoring test subjects identified the source of their memories. Results showed that the suggestibility effect was obtained in the recognition memory but not in the source-monitoring test, suggesting that misleading postevent information did not impair memory of the original event. The results also indicated that the eyewitness suggestibility effect might be caused by misled subjects' decision rather than their integrated memory representation.
A new 23-item scale, the Everyday Behavior Questionnaire (EDBQ) was developed to assess the Type A behavior pattern in women. Nurses (N=139) in an university hospital participated in the validation study. Factor analysis of the 23 items revealed a four-factor structure. The four factors were anger/impatience, competitiveness/hard-driving, speed, and eagerness/interest. Internal consistency reliability estimates of four factors were adequate. Concurrent validity assessed by the relationship between the EDBQ and the Jenkins Activity Survey was significantly high. The four-factor structure and the relationship between the factors and psychological/physical symptoms adequately demonstrated Type A characteristics, as well as the uniqueness of the new questionnaire. These results suggested that the construct validity was in the desired direction. Further reliability and validity researches with the EDBQ in various samples were suggested.
Thls study examined the changes in college students' view of life through three periods: the 1960s, 80s, and 90s. Approximately 3000 students at a liberal arts college responded at least once during the periods to a questionnaire with 13 descriptions (13 Ways to Live; Morris, 1956). Factor analyses, with principal component analysis and varimax rotation, found four factors that were common to the three subject groups. An examination of factor scores revealed that the first factor, “Sympathy and Service, ” decreased while the fourth, “Comfort and Variety, ” increased in the 80s and 90s, suggesting that an individualistic yet conforming tendency became more prominent in the latter periods than the 60s. While the third factor, “Active Action, ” increased during the four college years in the 60s, it decreased in the 80s. These changes may have reflected the campus unrest in the 60s and the subsequent student apathy in the 80s. A recent increase in the fourth factor, especially among sophomores, seems to reflect the current characteristics in college students' view of life, namely a “moratorium” tendency.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of overt and covert task-oriented verbalizations on kindergarteners' waiting behavior in the situation where the attractiveness of games was varied. One hundred and twenty kindergarteners, 4-6 year olds, were prohibited to touch the games while they were waiting for the experimenter who was out of the room to come back. High and low attractive situations were set by manipulating the attractiveness of games. In each situation, three treatment conditions were used: overt task-oriented verbalization, covert task-oriented verbalization, and no verbalization conditions. Subjects under the verbalization conditions were asked to respond to the buzzer signals during the waiting period by saying “don't touch the games” either aloud (overt condition) or silently moving lips (covert condition). Transgression latency was used to measure the effect of verbalization on waiting behavior. The results were as follows: (1) The overt task-oriented verbalization was effective in the low attractive situation, but not in the high attractive situation. (2) The covert task-oriented verbalization was not effective in both the high and low attractive situations.
To examine the influences of items evaluation and self-evaluation on test-retest effect, which was first pointed out by Windle (1954) as the influence of prior test experience, a self-evaluative consciousness scale was repeatedly administered to 174 female college students. They were divided into an-hour, a-month, and a-year conditions by intervals of tests. Thirty items of the scale were classified into five levels according to the size of evaluation factor loading. Findings were as follows: 1) Test-retest effect appeared in the group of a-month interval condition, 2) only for the items belonging to the lowest level of evaluation, 3) and this effect was mainly caused by the subjects whose self-evaluative consciousness was not high. Results were discussed in terms of temporal comparison theory proposed by Albert (1977), which states that making an assessment of present self character, a person compares it with his or her past assessment mainly on inferior traits (items), unconsciously trying to raise self evaluation through responding to these items more positively. This mechanism is supposed to be driven by the motivation of evaluation maintenance.