Language translation consists of two processing stages-comprehension stage and production stage. The comprehension stage is where messages in a source language are comprehended and the production stage is where messages in a target language are produced. Two experiments were designed to examine which processing stage causes more errors in translation. In Experiment 1, Japanese students were asked to memorize and then to translate one set of Japanese and English sentences into the opposite language, and also were required to memorize and then to recall another set of the sentences. The results of Expeiment 1 showed that the occurrence of error depended more on the source language than on the target language. This indicates that errors in translation occur mainly in the comprehension stage. The results were reconfirmed by Experiment 2, where Japanese students were required to read a Japanese or English sentences each time and after that they were directed either to translate or to recall it.
A wareness of morae, which is believed to be the most important requisite for acquisition of kana reading, was investigated with a mentally retarded child. It has been maintained that awareness of morae is a requisite for learning to name each kana character, but the author proposes that the former is not necessary for the latter, but is required for reading comprehension. To test the hypothesis, the subject, who named most of kana characters but could not understand written words, was trained to segment words into morae and identify each morae in order to raise the level of his awareness of morae; and then he was tested for the comprehension of written words. It was found that the subject was not aware of morae at first, but through the training of moraic awareness he was led to comprehend written words. Thus it was concluded that awareness of morae is a requisite for reading comprehension.
The present study investigated how the influence and the function of a face on person perception might vary with the number of targets (one, two or four) and the degree of facial attractiveness (positive or negative). One hundred sixty-seven female undergraduates were tested. After studying behavioral descriptions and photographs of targets, each subject was asked to form impressions and recall the descriptions of the targets. The main results were as follows. (a) A face became more influential as the number of targets increased. (b) A positive face exerted greater influence than a nagative face. (c) The effet of the number of targets was greater for nagative faces.
The purpose of this study was to analyze decision-making process in help-seeking behavior with the information monitoring method. Four simulated situations were prepared in which help became necessary. Eight categories of further situational information were explained, and 67 subjects were asked to indicate which categories of information they would like to see before actually seeking others' help in each of the four situations. The number and categories of information requested, together with their order, were recorded. Also, questions were asked concerning the difficulty, hesitation, and confidence they had felt during the task, and ratings were made regarding how adequate the eight information categories and how real the four situations were. Results suggested that (1) only two steps were taken before a help-seeking decision was made in every situation, and (2) it was made in a fairly fixed pattern in term of the help's possible cost and probable attibutitons of why it became necessary.
Sixty-four women, either scoring high or low on Trait Shyness Scale, were selected from a population of 130 junior college students. An experiment with a 2×2×2 factorial design was conducted, with shyness (high vs. low), interviewer gaze (high vs. low), and interviewer sex (man vs. woman) as its factors. Sitting directly in front of a subject, an interviewer read questions one by one from a list. Two trained judges coded the subject's gaze and speech through a one-way mirror, and later by watching videotaped records. Results showed that high shyness persons gazed less than the others in the high interviewer-gaze condition. In addition, high shyness women tended to talk less than low shyness women.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between time perspective and self-images of the present and future. A questionnaire was administered to 240 university students; it consisted of Self-Differential Scale (Nagashima, Fujiwara, Harano, Saito, & Hori, 1967) for three images of present, ideal, and predicted self; Identity Confusion Questionnaire (Sunada, 1979); and items about attitude toward personal past, present, and future. The main findings were as follows: (1) The discrepancy between images of present and ideal self was correlated significantly with attitude toward personal present. (2) The discrepancy between images of predicted and ideal self was correlated significantly with attitude toward personal future. (3) In the high identity-confusion high group, the discrepancy between images of present and ideal self was correlated significantly with attitude toward personal present. But in the low group, the correlation was not significant.
This study aimed at descriptive understanding of traditional methods involved in locating fishing points and navigating to them in the sea, and investigate associated cognitive activities. Participant observations and interviews were conducted for more than 30 fishermen who employed hand-line or long-line fishing methods near Toyoshima Island, Hiroshima Prefecture. The main findings were: (1) Fishermen readily perceived environmental cues when locating fishing points, which enabled them to navigate to a correct point on the sea. (2) Their memory of fishing points was not verbal, but visual, directly tied to the cue perception, and was constantly renewed during fishing activities. (3) They grasped configurations of various natural conditions (e.g., swiftness of the tide, surface structure of the sea bottom) through tactile information from the fishing tine, and comprehended their surroundings with accumulated knowledge and inductive inferences. And (4) their cognitive processes of perception, memory, and understanding were functionally coordinated in the series of fishing work.
A technology of virtual reality enables us to immerse ourselves into 3D synthesized environments. In this paper, I review recent researches on virtual reality focusing on (a) the terminology used in this research area, (b) technological approaches to setting up different components of virtual reality-autonomy, interaction, and presence-, (c) objective measures and subjective ratings of a viewer's sense of presence in virtual environments, (d) present applications of virtual reality in different fields and their relation to pictorial communication. This review concludes that intermodality conflict and measurement of sense of presence are the crucial perceptual and cognitive topics in virtual reality research.