This sudy examined how categorization varies with relevant knowledge. Subjects were undergraduates, and they were asked to sort a set of pictures or photographs based on whatever features they liked. In Experiment 1, three groups of subjects (15 each) sorting 31 cards portraying fictitious animals were explained about each card nothing (Group 1), apparent physical features of each animal (Group 2), or physical as well as ecological features (Group 3). Results showed that: (1) in Groups 1 and 2 most frequently used features were physical features, while in Group 3 they were ecological features; (2) the structure of category system were either predominantly single-criterion type or multiple-criteria type, and the distribution of types differed among groups. In Experiment 2, three groups of subjects (14 each) sorting 36 photographs of leaves were explained in advance nothing (Group 1), a botanical principle of classification (Group 2), or its evolutionary basis (Group 3). Results revealed that relevant features and category structures differed among groups. These findings suggest that categorization behavior varies with the qualitative and/or quantitative nature of relevant knowledge.
We investigated interrelationship between the facial expression and familiarity using spatial filtering and inverted presentation. The stimuli were facial images (smiling and neutral faces) band-pass filtered in the spatial domain. If the filtering is carried out at low spatial frequencies, the images convey more global features than the local ones, whereas the local features are emphasized in the images filtered at high frequencies. The task of subjects was to judge the expression (Experiment 1) or familiarity (Experiment 2) of such images, which were presented in the upright or inverted orientation. The following results were obtained. 1) Spatial frequency components in the middle range (12.4 and 24.8 cycles/face-width) were important in recognizing both expression and familiarity, 2) there was close relationship between the facial expression and familiarity, and 3) smiling faces were harder to recognize when they are shown in the inverted orientation. These results suggest that there are the common and different recognition processes between facial expression and familiarity.
This study examined the influence of positive and negative moods on memory in children. Short video clips, happy or sad, were shown to 394 third-grade children to manipulate their mood. Then sentences with positive or negative items were given for a learning task. The sentences had people's name, food or animal as their subject. Cued recall was then assessed with sentence subjects as cues. A mood-congruent effect was observed (a) when children learned sentences about foods or animals in a happy mood, and recalled them with food or animal cues; and (b) when they learned sentences about people's names in a sad mood, and recalled them with food or animal cues. A mood-incongruent effect was found (c) when they learned sentences about people's names in a sad mood, and recalled them with people's name cues. Interestingly, children recalled negative items more frequently than positive ones when they learned sentences with people's names. However, children appeared to be able to suppress such a negativity bias if they could control their mood.
Many personality theorists postulate a hierarchical structure in trait words. However, most evidences are indirect, mainly because the theorists rely on factor-analytic methods. Assuming a global structure, the factor approach is not necessarily adequate to investigate concrete relationship among trait words. In this study, we used two direct measures to study the hierarchical structure: direct comparison of breadth and asymmetry class-inclusion judgment on trait concepts. Results of three experiments in general confirmed robustness of the hierarchical structure in the domain of personality traits. Traits were organized in the structure at several different levels of abstractness. But the structure was fuzzy in nature, unlike the taxonomy in biology. It was also found that inter-relations among traits could vary considerably from individual to individual. Cognitive complexity may be one of the variables that explain such an individual difference.
The perceptual process of an object with multiple features mainly consists of two stages. At first, features are encoded independently at the modular level (feature level). Secondly, they are recombined to build a temporal representation of the object (conjunctive level). Using the apparent motion technique in which stimuli were defined by color and shape, we examined the levels at which the object-specific priming takes place. Although the discrimination of the second stimulus was facilitated when it shared the features with the first stimulus, the priming effects were different according to the number of stimulus items of the first frame. When the first frame contained one stimulus item, the priming benefits were obtained at the both conjunctive and the feature levels. However, the benefit was found only at the feature level when the item number was increased to eight (one of them disappeared in the following frames as the apparent motion stimulus). The roles of modular analysis and attention integration were discussed in terms of the economical validity of feature preservation in object perception.
The research investigated the implicit sequential learning under the condition in which Stroop task was used. A stimulus of color name printed in incongruent color was presented on CRT monitor on each trial. The task was naming the color in which the word was printed. The color names were presented randomly and the printed colors were presented according to either a high structured or a low structured sequence. The learning of both sequences was observed when assessed through performance measure (decrease or increase in reaction times). The learning may be said to have occurred implicitly since the subjects trained under the low structured sequence proved to be almost unaware of the nature of the sequence and they performed no better than control subjects in a cued-recall task (generate the sequence). These results are considered important in examining the conditions in which sequential events can be learned implicitly.
There have been few studies that examined the meaning one finds in how he/she lies his/her life. In this study, Mizokami's “Why is it” test (1994a) was used to explore basic factors concerning the perspectives people have of their future lives. The test consists of twenty “Why is it” questions. Results indicated that most frequently expressed basic factors, regardless of how future lives were viewed, were of evaluation, such as “Happy life” and “Good feeling of daily life.” Features of various other basic factors were also discussed; for example, people who expressed “Positive thinking” or “Other-orientedness” were living a healthy and active life.
Phrasing effect of short intertrial interval (ITI) on the serial pattern learning was investigated in a runway experiment. In acquision, all 10 rats were given three repetitions of 14-7-3-1-0 subpattern daily over Days 1-80. For Group NP (non phrasing), all daily 15 trials were separated by a 15-min ITI. Group GP (good phrasing) and Group BP (bad phrasing) received the same procedure as Group NP except, instead of the 15-min ITI, a 15-s ITI was inserted between the 0 pellet and 14 pellets trial in the former, and a 15-s ITI was inserted between the 3 pellets and 1 pellet trial in the latter. Means of the last 4 days of acquisition as indicated by running speed showed that Group GP produced better anticipation of the 0 pellet trial than Group NP, and that Group BP produced the poorest anticipation. In Group BP, rats ran more slowly on the 1 pellet trial, that occurred after the 15-s ITI, than on the 0 pellet trial in each of the first and second subpatterns. These results suggest that a shorter ITI plays dual roles, as a phrasing cue and as a discriminative stimulus in the serial pattern learning as that does in reinforcement-nonreinforcement pattern learning.
This study examined how the relevance of information to the speaker and the hearer affected the use of comments and interrogative sentences. Subjects read scenarios and rated the necessity of an expression (Experiment 1) or the naturalness of expressions (Experiment 2) in each of the situations. Experiment 1 investigated the use of comments, which preceded the information, to show the speaker's uncertainty about the information contents (subjects: 138 undergraduates). The less the information was relevant to the speaker and/or the more it was relevant to the hearer, the more the comments were judged to be necessary. Experiment 2 investigated the use of interrogative sentences, declarative sentences, and declarative sentences+ a sentence final particle ‘ne’ (subjects: 96 undergraduates). Interrogative sentences were judged to be the most natural in the conditions where the information was relevant to the hearer and not to the speaker, whereas declarative sentences were judged to be the most natural where the information was relevant to the speaker and not to the hearer. Declarative sentences+ ‘ne’ showed intermediate patterns of use between interrogative sentences and declarative sentences.