Sperber and Wilson's (1981) Mention Theory gives an explanation of how to be understood an ironical utterance. Ironies are mentions of meaning conveying a derogatory attitude to the meaning mentioned (Sperber, 1984). The validity of this theory was evaluated in three experiments. All experiments required subjects to rate a sarcastic degree of an utterance. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 showed that the meaning of an utterance was interpreted as sarcastic when the utterance was positive, independent of speaker's mention. In Experiment 3, which examined the effect of the marker of mention, “You said…”, the utterance mentioned was interpreted as sarcastic. These results suggested that Mention Theory only partially give correct prediction of understanding of ironies. The addressee's inferences concerning speaker's intention was discussed.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the five-factor model (FFM) of personality traits in the framework of fuzzy-set theory. Four hundred and thirty-eight undergraduates rated themselves (self-ratings) and their parents (other-ratings) on monopolar scales of fifty personality traits. The data were analyzed with factor analysis and Oda's Fuzzy-set Concurrent Rating (FCR) method (1993b). Results were as follows: (a) The robustness of FFM was confirmed in both self- and other-rating data. (b) The first three factors of FFM clearly corresponded with the basic dimensions of interpersonal cognition proposed by Hayashi (1978). (c) The degree of contradiction found in self-rating data, based on the analysis with the FCR method, was greater than that of other-rating data. These findings suggest that fuzzy-set theory was effective in its application to the analysis of personality and interpersonal cognition in the framework of the five-factor model.
We investigated how the visual system processes asymmetrical noise in globally symmetrical patterns, and how much noise the visual system needs to discriminate between the perfectly symmetrical and imperfectly symmetrical patterns. Two experiments were carried out in which subjects were required to discriminate between the above patterns. This task was equivalent to a kind of the visual search task because subjects had to search for some targets asymmetrical dot pairs in two-dimensional (Experiment 1) or in three-dimensional mirror symmetry of dot patterns (Experiment 2). The results showed that the visual system processes noise largely in parallel in the two-dimensional symmetry, but largely in serial in the three-dimensional symmetry. In addition, analyses of the percent correct data suggested that the mechanism involved in detecting both the two- and three-dimensional symmetries in activated even by the patterns with a small amount of noise.
When we imagine our action, we can take two perspectives. We may see ourselves from our own perspective, which makes an internal viewpoint. We may also see ourselves from other's perspective, which becomes an external viewpoint. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the factors that affect the use of this viewpoints. Two hundred eight college students were asked to imagine 33 situations which differed in the levels of public selfawareness and emotionality, and rated how well their imagery matched each of the viewpoints. Data analysis revealed that situations of high public self-awareness tended to cause an external viewpoint. And the subjects with high self-consciousness, either public or private, were inclined to have an image from an external viewpoint. These results suggested that self-awareness influenced the viewpoints for self imagery.
The generalized Poisson distribution is a distribution which approximates various forms of mixtures of Poisson distributions. The mean and variance of the generalized Poisson distribution, which are simple functions of the two parameters of the distribution, are more useful than the original parameters in test data analysis. Therefore, we adopted two types of transformations of parameters. The first model has new parameters of mean and standard deviation. The second model contains new parameters of mean and variance/mean. An example indicates that the transformed parameters are convenient to understand the properties of data.
An experiment was conducted to examine which was crucial for the reactance effect on attitude change: discrepancy, initial position or prerequisite conditions for reactance arousal. Initial receiver attitudes were one of the five levels: moderate or extreme agreement (the least discrepancy), slight agreement, neutral, slight disagreement, and moderate or extreme disagreement (the most discrepancy), and threat to attitudinal freedom was manipulated. Prerequisite conditions for reactance arousal were also measured. Threat manipulation significantly reduced opinion change only among receivers at neutral or moderate/extreme disagreement position. In addition, examination of prerequisites showed that compliance in high threat condition was significantly less for receivers who had been uncertain about their own initial position and had perceived the issue important (freedom-of-choice group) and those who had perceived the attacked position as both possible and important (freedom-of-position group). Theoretical and practical significance of prerequisites for reactance arousal is discussed.
Various methods have been conventionally applied for studies of the nasal cycle. Most of these studies have been through either clinical observations by rhinologists or by the use of physiological apparatuses. The purposes of the present study are to develop a different and simplified technique for measuring the nasal cycle and to determine the extent to which the new technique works with actual cases. Five adult subjects were required to hold a 8×6 mirror horizontally under the nostrilsin and to breathe through the nose with the mouth closed. The length of time required for the exhalation vapor to condense on the mirror was measured every 15 minutes from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. LR index scores (L-R/L+R) were calculated on the bases of left and right time, and maximum entropy method spectral analysis was used to determine the nasal cycle. The results showed that three of the subjects demonstrated significant periodicities equivalent to about three or four hour ultradian rhythms. Some of the problems with individual differences and with this new method were discussed.
The present study examined the subjective response induced by the concentration upon and repetition of the formal language expressing the sense of heaviness- “The arm is heavy.” As a result of the factor analysis of the experiment using 60 subjects, the following five factors emerged. (1) Overall sense of improvement; (2) awareness of the sensation of the arm; (3) change to less nervousness; (4) awareness of positive aspects; (5) understanding of the formal language. Also, those who were aware of psychosomatic symptoms felt their change to less nervousness more significantly, and their understanding of the formal language was significantly higher than those who were not aware of psychosomatic symptoms. The result of the experiment suggests one possibility that excessive concentration upon the body concerning psychosomatic symptoms may have changed to the concentration upon the sense of heaviness, or that the reduction of the stress thereof may have brought the change to less nervousness.
Recent developments in the study of brain self-stimulation were reviewed with particular emphasis on the biochemical mechanism underlying the phenomenon. Several lines of evidence suggest that dopaminergic transmission in the mesolimbic system is critical for the reinforcement effect to occur. An important event is the activation of D2 dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens and its vicinity, but D2 receptors cannot respond to dopamine unless D1 receptors are activated first. It is necessary for these receptors to work together to initiate intracellular chemical reactions to alter the excitability of the accumbens neurons. Recent experiments suggest that the reinforcing effect of medial-forebrain-bundle stimulation depends on the activation of intracellular protein kinase in the nucleus accumbens, As in the sensitization in Aplysia and long-term potentiation in the hippocampus, protein kinases play critical role in the reinforcement of operant behaviour.