The purpose of this paper is to clarify the conditions of data, under which the direct application of factor analysis to ordered categorical data may not be appropriate. For this purpose, we conducted two simulation studies, in which the numbers of observations, items, categories and factors were systematically changed, and in which two methods for estimating correlations were used. In these simulations, we examined the effects of the various conditions of data on the reproducibility of the true factor loadings and true number of factors, and on the frequency of improper solutions. Based on the results, several practical suggestions were provided to prevent inappropriate uses of factor analysis for the ordered categorical date; e.g., at least five categories are needed for sound applications of factor analysis.
This study was carried out on the basis of Wolpe's principle of reciprocal inhibition. The stress-model asserts that the essence of anxiety reduction is the shift from the ergotropic to the trophotropic state, while the distraction-model asserts that distraction is the essence of anxiety reduction. The present experiment brings light to the following points not clarified in previous studies: (1) the effects of training vary with the symptoms of clients suffering from generalized anxiety disorders. The anxiety reducing effects of relaxation training is higher among those who complain of emotional syndromes than in those who complain of behavioral syndromes; (2) in both generalized anxiety disorders and social phobias, the mechanism of anxiety reduction matches the distraction model more than the stress model; (3) the effects of anxiety reduction by relaxation training and stress-relieving training carried out in the counseling room or in the client's home is higher in cases of generalized anxiety disorders than in social phobias.
We examined preferences of division ratios in figures divided into two parts, based on Davis and Jahnke's (1991) method. The stimulus figures are a square and six rectangles, each of which is divided by a straight (vertical or horizontal) line in six different ratios. For each of the stimulus figures, the subjects (53 university students and 49 kindergarten children) were asked to choose among the six different section ratios in order of preference. The results revealed the following points: (1) For both university students and kindergarten children, the preference rate was the highest for the ratio 1:1. (2) For university students, the second highest preference was for the ratios 1:1.618 and 1:2.098, and for kindergarten children, it was for the ratio 1:3.885. (3) For university students, in the case of the ratio 1:1, the shorter the sides which the dividing line meets at right angles become, the higher the preference rate gets.
The present study investigated the nature of attentional control when the stimulus display contained both static and dynamic items. Subjects searched for a target defined by color presented among nontargets, one of which was a distractor with a unique feature in a different stimulus dimension. Experiment 1 showed that the presence of a distractor with a taskirrelevant form hindered identification of the color-defined target. When it was easy to distinguish the target from the other items, this attentional capture was not observed even if the display contained a motion distractor (Experiment 2). Decreasing the saliency of a target color yielded the attentional capture by a motion distractor and interfered target identification performance (Experiment 3). These results suggest that the attentional control mainly depends on the stimulus-driven activations caused by differences between features in stimulus dimensions whether the target and the distractor are defined by static or dynamic features. In order to explain these findings of the attentional capture, a possibility for proposing the single activation map model was discussed.
The present study examined the effects that reciprocity of social support has on mental and physical health of young adults from the viewpoint that an individual is both an active and passive support provider as well as receiver. The questionnaire, completed by 505 young adults, included items that measured four kinds of support: requested by and provided to others, and requested and received by them. It also asked about the affects associated with support relationships, in addition to the level of adjustment and mental and physical health. Correlational analyses showed that young adults felt their support relationships were fairly reciprocal. ANOVA and multiple regression indicated that lack of reciprocity was in general associated with negative affects and poor health. Providing more support than receiving lead to dissatisfaction, and receiving more than providing to a feeling of indebtedness. Finally, the data supported the prediction that there was a path from support equity to affective state to mental and physical health.
This study examined how the level of desire to acquire an ability and the perceived probability that it may be acquired affect self-assessment of the ability. From three categories, (1) desire to acquire is strong and desired level of acquisition is high, (2) desire is strong and desired level of acquisition is average, and (3) desire is weak, ten abilities each were chosen by each of 77 undergraduates. They also indicated the perceived probability that each ability might be acquired. Then, self-assessment behavior for each ability was measured with the choice and preference among four tasks that differed in terms of ability diagnosticity. The main results were as follows: (a) High-diagnostic tasks were chosen more often than the others, regardless of the desire to acquire and the probability. (b) Preference for high-diagnostic tasks was stronger when the desired acquisition level was high or average and the perceived probability was high. (c) Subjects' reason for self-assessment was their need to acquire accurate selfknowledge. The results suggest that expectation of future self-enhancement affects the likelihood of self-assessment behavior.
Marshall (1974) and Pedersen (1979) theorized and studied Orientation toward Privacy, but the concept has not been explored extensively in this country. In this study, a Japanese version of their Inventory of Orientation toward Privacy was constructed. In Study 1, translated items of the inventory were examined to see whether they had the same dimensions as the original scale. The results indicated that the dimensions were similar, except an ‘Anonymity’ factor. In Study 2, excluding anonymity items, a 21-item Japanese version was constructed, incorporating Iwata's (1987) findings as well. Factor analysis revealed seven factors, Free will, Intimacy with Friends, Reserve, Intimacy with Family, Seclusion, and Isolation. Finally, in Study 3, the new Inventory was administered to another sample, and its factor structure re-examined. The structure proved to be reasonably stable, and it therefore may be concluded that the scale meaningfully measured Orientation toward Privacy.
Children of three to six years of age were presented ten pairs of squares and rectangles differing in area ratios and asked to select a bigger one in each pair. Children's basis of selection was identified as area, height, or width, according to selection patterns of matched two pairs. Few children used width as a basis of selection. Three-and six-year-olds used area more often than four- and five-year-olds who used height more often than three- and six-year-olds. These results were discussed in relation to cognitive development and methodological problems in previous studies.
The purpose of this paper is to construct the Big Five Scales (BFS) of personality trait terms which are based on the items of ACL (Adjective Check List). First, the five-factor solution corresponding to the Big Five was obtained after a few steps of analysis, and then BFS was constructed. Next, the concurrent validity of BFS was investigated by means of joint factor analysis with a new type of personality inventory (NPI), at item level as well as scale level. It follows from these results that BFS is good markers for personality factors and NPI measures a wide area of personality traits which covers the Big Five.