Two experiments examined the effect of illusion of control on ingroup favoritism found in the minimal group situation (Tajfel, Billig, Bundy, & Flament, 1971). In bilateral dependency condition, each member made allocation decisions for ingroup as well as outgroup participants. It was exactly the same situation used in the original studies under the minimal group paradigm, and the subjects knew that their reward allocation too depended on others' decisions. In contrast, in unilateral dependency condition, the subjects made allocation decisions knowing that theirs were not dependent on others' decisions. In Experiment 1, an ingroup bias in reward distribution was found in the bilateral dependency condition, but not in the unilateral condition. In Experiment 2, it was found that only those who felt illusion of control exhibited such an ingroup bias. Results of the experiments therefore confirmed that illusion of control explained ingroup favoritism, as Karp, Jin, Yamagishi, and Shinotsuka (1993) originally hypothesized.
The present research assumed that a feeling of unreality is the defining characteristic of depersonalization phenomena. In Survey 1, two scales were constructed: the State Feelings of Unreality Scale for measuring a feeling of unreality as a transitory state and the Trait Feelings of Unreality Scale for assessing individual differences in disposition to experience that state. Both scales had high internal consistency. The Trait Feelings of Unreality Scale had sufficient test-retest reliability. In Survey 2, the Trait Feelings of Unreality Scale was found to be moderately correlated to level of maladjustment. Survey 3 showed that those higher in State Feelings of Unreality experienced greater negative affect. The results of Surveys 2 and 3 supported the construct validity of the Trait Feelings of Unreality Scale and the State Feelings of Unreality Scale, respectively.
This study examined the effect of trash-receptacle availability on littering behavior in a naturalistic setting, namely a shopping mall. The procedure employed was an ABAB design, with (A) a baseline period, (B) an intervention period, (A) a second baseline period, and (B) a second intervention period. During the intervention periods, receptacles for empty cans and bottles were placed next to every trash receptacle that had been in place. The arrangement had a highly significant effect on littering behavior. For the first intervention period, a 22% reduction in litter was obtained, and it was reduced 34% for the second period. It seems that receptacles themselves were a powerful cue to induce people to deposit their litter. Conditions for findings of applied behavior analysis to generalize to more realistic every-day situations were also discussed.
Interviews with 57 college students were conducted. In order to investigate how they experienced “confidence” or “pride” in everyday life. The framework of the study was “locus of reality”, which was the degree that reality was felt inside self as opposed to in others. Results showed that the subjects tended to become conscious of themselves when they were to share information about situations with others. Also, locus of reality had a relative tendency to oscillate between self and others. Moreover, differences were found for mental experiences ascribed for themselves and others, even when the same words were used for both. The experiences of “confidence” and “no-confidence” were characteristically asymmetrical in the feeling of reality. “Pride” was different from “confidence”, in that the former was associated more with experiences that had defensive connotations. These results suggested that people might have a tendency not to differentiate interpretation processes of their own from others.
Fimbria-fornix-lesioned (FF) rats (n=10) and control rats (n=10) were trained for the food-searching task in a rectangular box with four kinds of featural panels. In Experiment 1, food was placed at the fixed corner in front of the fixed panel so that both geometrical information (the shape of the rectangular box) and featural information (panels at the corners) were available for the rat. Control rats could find the food, but they sometimes searched at the diagonal corner of the food. Food location and its diagonal location were equivalent in relation to the longer and shorter sides of the box. FF rats could find food, only when the featural panel that showed the location of food was in front of them. From Experiments 2A and 2B which controlled geometrical information and featural information respectively, it is indicated that control rats could use geometrical information and featural information independently, but that FF rats could use only featural information. These results suggest that the hippocampus plays an important role in processing geometrical information, but not featural information.
This longitudinal study over the five-year period of 1988-1993 seeks to ascertain the determinants of young women's career choice-continued employment with same organization or changing employment organization. Another purpose of the study is to compare the characteristics between two types of career choices. The sample consists of 204 employed women with a variety of occupations who are in their 20s and early 30s. They previously or currently work in Tokyo. Using chi-square tests, t-tests, and canonical discriminant analyses it is found that the determinant to continue employment with same organization is the desire for a lifetime career. The determinants of changing employment organization are shorter-educational-training professional jobs and high income. The comparison of the characteristics of the two types of women in 1993 shows that a woman who continues employment with the same organization for 7-8 years has a higher egalitarian sex role attitude, higher income, is a mother, and is in a managerial position. The woman who changes employment organization is older and has a shortereducational-training-professional job.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of subjective-familiarity vs. unfamiliarity and the age of faces (adult faces vs. child faces) on immediate and delayed face recognition in preschool children. Subjective-familiarity is a feeling that one takes unfamiliar faces as resembling actual familiar ones. Fifty-six preschool children were given instructions which made them focus on either Subjectively Familiar Face (SFF) or Unfamiliar Face (UF), and No-Instruction (NI) condition was set as a control. In the SFF condition the subjects were required to judge whether the faces resembled someone they knew; in the UF condition they were required to pick out faces new to them. The major findings were that the SFF instruction facilitated recognition scores (d′) and this tendency was especially strong in the delayed test. These results were interpreted as showing that the SFF instruction enhanced information processing at the constructional coding level. One of the reasons why preschool children are deficient in recognizing unfamiliar faces is that they have not yet developed the ability to process information at the constructional coding level.
The purpose of this study was (1) to construct Quality of Life Scale for Elderly (QOLS-E), which was to evaluate the older person's physical, social, and psychological states synthetically, and (2) to find out which factors most influenced the person's psychological satisfaction. Two groups of people, 42 in total who were between 65 and 90 years old, participated in the study, with 25 living in the nursing home, and 17 in the hospital. Although the factor structure of QOLS-E was reasonable, the reliabilities were not very high, meaning further research was necessary to improve the scale. Multiple regression showed that Satisfaction with Activities of Daily Life was apt to be related to psychological satisfaction. Also, enjoying a hobby and positive relationships with institutional staff members appeared important for other facets of psychological satisfaction. As for subscales of psychological satisfaction, enjoying a hobby was significantly related to Acceptance of Own Life, and number of diseases to Mental Stability. Another subscales of QOLS-E, Satisfaction with Family Relationships, was also related to Acceptance of Own Life.
It is logically inferred that in a recognition judgment, subjects unconsciously discriminate an experimental episode from past episodes concerning the test item. This implies that the interference effect reported in the list specific recognition task (Anderson & Bower, 1974) must also appear in the standard recognition judgment. This paper investigated the nature of such an interference effect. In the experiment subjects were presented with a target list following non-target lists, and then performed a YES-NO recognition test. Each previously-studied list contained both targets and distracters in a different order. The subjects were divided into four groups according to the number of prior study lists (0, 1, 2, 3). Results indicate that recognition performance deteriorated as the number of prior lists increased. The most important result was that the rate of increase of the interference effect, especially when estimated based on the increment of false alarms, decreased as the number of prior lists increased. This paper calls this phenomenon non-linearity of interference effect.