We examined the graphemic processing mechanism of Kanji recognition by measuring recognition thresholds of Kanji images of different spatial frequencies, strokes and visual angles. Twenty-eight subjects participated in the experiment. The lowest thresholds were observed in the center spatial frequencies of 4.00-5.66cycles/character. The thresholds of the original images were, however, lower than them. The effects of strokes were found to be strong only in low spatial frequencies, which indicated the difference in processing between high and low frequency bands. The effects of visual angles showed that Kanji recognition was not influenced by cycles/degree, but by cycles/character.
The purpose of this study is to construct a rating scale, which measures dream properties, excludes extraneous variables caused by experimenter and/or subject, and reflects physiological activation during sleep. We selected 52 adjective items for the rating scale, expecting to reflect the four hypothetical properties of dreaming. We conducted polysomnographic studies employing REM periods awakening technique to 34 graduate or undergraduate students and obtained a total of 318 responses to the questionnaire. Promax rotation of the factor analysis were repeated by changing the number of the items and the factors. Finally, four factors (bizarreness, evaluation, impression, and activity) were extracted from 15 items. All items had more than .68 factor loading to one of the factors. By using a total of raw scores for each factor, we calculated the mean and the SD for standardization. The normalized DP scale demonstrated high reliability. Correlation between each score of the DP scale and physiological variables, such as atonia, REMs, twitching, body movement, and NREM-REM sleep cycle, suggested a validity of the DP scale. In particular, the impression and the activity related to the atonia index and the REMs density which reflected REM sleep activation system of the brainstem.
This study investigated the possibility that different levels of self-other interdependency lead to different levels of self and other perception. Forty-six undergraduates were randomly assigned and were told descriptions of everyday relations that were either high or low in interdependency. They were asked whether they experienced each type of the relations, and if they did, what they thought for each at the time. Content analysis of their statements indicated that statements about intention, attitude, and emotion of self and other were more frequent when the interdependency was high than low, whereas statements disregarding intention and thought of self and other were more numerous at low interdependency. It is suggested that the levels of self and other perception are interrelated, and that the degree of interdependency between self and the other determines the salient level of self and other perception.
It was hypothesized that there are three independent levels of reading processing: Letter and word level, sentence level, and discourse level. Reading speed of 117 fifth-grade children were assessed, and clause length, position in each sentence, and position in passage were found to affect the speed independently. These features therefore must correspond respectively to the levels mentioned above. Since working memory capacity possibly determined the functioning of the three levels, reading span as the capacity was assessed in the study and incorporated into a multivariate path model, in order to predict ability in reading comprehension. The span and vocabulary explained the child's general reading ability. The ability together with domain specific knowledge explained the child's domain specific reading comprehension. Finally, the applicability of those findings to the programs to assist children who have difficulty in reading comprehension was discussed.
Personality traits have a structure that is hierarchically organized in terms of trait abstractness. Which level of the hierarchy is most available to the person perceiver? We started out with four levels, and tried to determine which was most available and therefore became the “basic level”, as in the Rosch, Mervis, Gray, Johnson, and Boyes-Braem's natural categories (1976). Two methods were employed. First, rating of trait descriptiveness showed that information effectiveness was relatively high at the second level from the top. Second, subjects preferred the same level when they described target persons. These results suggested that a “basic level” indeed existed in the hierarchy of personality traits. However, social desirability of traits and who the target person was also affected the results. Implications are discussed about theories of cognitive style, especially cognitive complexity, which assume the generality of our cognitive system and have been in confusion with contradictory findings.
Using 176 Japanese and 132 Indonesian university students as subjects, the author investigated the preference for light complexions and the cultural influence on it from the viewpoint of the psychological structure of the aesthetic preference for white. In the first survey, the subjects were asked to choose their preferred colors from a color chart in order to know their general preference for white. In the second survey, the subjects were asked to answer a questionnaire designed to discriminate personal images for the four stimuli of different complexion. The results showed that positive images were associated with a fair complexion in Japan. In Indonesia, on the other hand, the images associated with a fair complexion were rather negative although white itself was highly accepted. Association with images of rareness and scarcity for a fair complexion was, however, common to both countries. This may suggest that the preference for white and whiteness derives from images of something unique and special.
This study examined the effect of direction change of tangential velocity on speed perception using a dot in curved motion. The PSE values were measured for four standard stimuli of different motion curvature. In Experiment 1, semicirucular motion was a comparison stimulus. The result showed that the PSE values increased with increasing motion curvature. This implies that direction change of tangential velocity can affect its speed perception. However, in Experiment 2, the effect of direction change of tangential velocity was not clear when a comparison stimulus was replaced with linear motion. In Experiment 3, the motion curvature as a comparison stimulus was set near the threshold level of curvature detection. As the result, the similar trend to Experiment 1 was observed. However, the effect of direction change of tangential velocity remained the same as Experiment 2. These results suggestes that direction change of tangential volcity can affect its speed perception, while the effect depends on how much direction change of tangential velocity could be detected for a comparison stimulus.
Visually induced vertigo, or motion sickness, is thought to be mainly influenced by motion perception, not by shape perception. We examined this point by comparing the effect of the foveal vision on the visually induced vertigo with that of the peripheral vision. We set up three kinds of display conditions: Foveal vision (F), peripheral vision (P), and foveal+peripheral vision (F+P). Videotaped motion was presented on the display. The results showed that a drifting eye movement was larger after the experiment than before the experiment in the (P) and the (F+P) conditions, but not in the (F) condition. In addition, the mirror drawing was improved only in the (F) condition. Subjective ratings for the vertigo were higher in both the (P) and the (F+P) conditions than in the (F) condition. These results indicate that some visual units concerning low spatial frequencies participate in the visually induced vertigo.
It is a well-known observation that when a Kanji character is viewed steadily and continuously, the viewer often becomes unable to recognize the Kanji as a whole pattern and it becomes difficult to judge whether or not the Kanji is orthographically correct. Such a phenomenon is called the “Gestaltzerfall” of Kanji characters. In the present study, two experiments were carried out to examine delays in the recognition of test Kanji following 25 s of prolonged viewing of adaptation Kanji, which were comprised of either the same or different parts and structures. When the size of the adaptation Kanji was equal to that of the test Kanji, there were significant delays of more than 50 ms, both when the stimuli were of the same pattern, and when they had the same structure but different components. However, when their sizes were different, delays were found only when the test and the adaptation Kanji were of the same pattern. These results suggest that a Kanji pattern may be internally represented as a whole, independent of its size, while the processing of Kanji structure may be dependent upon its size. Prolonged viewing may produce an adaptation effect specific to such representations.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relation of age, gender, and sex-role identity to role expectation in same-sex friends (SSF). Role expectation in SSF consisted of ten categories (Wada, 1993): Cooperation, information, similarity, self-enhancement, sensitivity, companionship, authenticity, self-disclosure, respect, and interdependence. Subjects were 129 (67 male and 62 female) junior high school, 243 (118 male and 125 female) senior high school, and 168 (88 male and 80 female) college students. Major findings were as follows: Senior high school and undergraduate students expected more self-enhancement from SSF than junior high students. Junior and senior high school students expected more companionship than undergraduates. Undergraduates expected more authenticity and less self disclosure than junior high school students. And male students expected more companionship, information, and similarity, but less self-disclosure, self-enhancement, and respect from SSF than female. Clear results of the relationship between sex-role identity and role expectation in SSF weren't found.