Three experiments are reported which deal with the nature of categorization of natural objects. Stimulus materials were schematic butterfly patterns. Systematic transformations were given to the original pattern to make stimulus instance. In Experiment 1, subjects were given a recognition memory task with recognition ratings. Recognition ratings were found to be related to family resemblance score (FRS: the sum of feature frequency in the category) rather than to transformation or subjective similarity to the original. In Experiment 2, subjects were given the recognition memory task while the FRS was kept constant. Weight of each feature affected recognition ratings differently, when FRS was kept constant. In Experiment 3, subjects were given the same task as in Experiment 2, while the FRS and the component frequency of each feature were kept constant. Again each feature affected recognition ratings differently. These findings suggest that both the frequency and weight of feature itself affect recognition ratings.
In this study, we constructed a scale to measure individual preference for supportive humor, and examined whether the preference related to mental health. Two samples of female undergraduates cooperated with survey studies. In the first, a scale was constructed to measure preference for supportive kinds of humor, and relationships were examined between its score, hardiness to negative events, and depression, together with preference for other types of humor identified in a previous study (Ueno, 1992). In the second, the reference was correlated with hedonistic attitudes and private self-consciousness. Main findings were as follows: (1) Of the three types of humor (aggressive, playful, and supportive), only preference for supportive humor correlated with depression. (2) Hedonistic attitudes correlated with preference for each of the three types. (3) Private self-consciousness correlated only with preference for supportive humor.
Triangular properties which Blank (1961) proposed are useful in investigating the geometry of visual space. With this method, however, it is not possible to estimate quantitatively the curvature of visual space. In the present article, hyperbolic and elliptic triangles are described with mathematical equations in the two and three dimensional Euclidean maps, and a method is proposed to estimate the curvature with triangular properties. Further, one experiment is conducted to find how the curvature changes according to the experimental conditions. Visual triangles are constructed in an eye level plane, a slanted plane and a horopter plane. The result shows that the curvature is negative in the eye level plane and in the slanted plane, but positive in the horopter plane.
Placing the infant in a device which restrained his/her movement was a traditional custom of infant caretaking in a number of parts of the world, and is still observed in some of them. An example of such practices, swaddling, was investigated with Native Americans, the Aymara, in Bolivia, and caretaking behaviors in 24 swaddling and 18 non-swaddling families were compared. Results did not support the notion that swaddling was a form of infant neglect on the part of caretakers. Swaddling caretakers actually exhibited as strong interest in the infant as non-swaddling caretakers, and spent more money on his/her clothes. The mother spent less time for infant care in the swaddling family. However, other members of the family took more time to take care of the infant than those in the non-swaddling family. It is argued that swaddling effectively encourages non-mother family members to participate in infant caretaking, in addition to serving a potentially beneficial function to protect infants from unsafe and insanitary home environments.
This study investigated the relationship between group norms and interpersonal attraction in group work setting. It may be assumed that interpersonal attraction, like group functions, has two conflictive orientations: instrumentality and emotionality. Relationship of the two orientations in interpersonal attraction to group norms was examined in two experiments. Results of Experiment 1, with 66 female university students, suggested that specific contents of group norms influenced both instrumental and emotional attraction. Experiment 2, with 60 female university students, indicated that emotional attraction had normative influence on task selection and goal setting. Conflicting dynamics of the two orientations in group-work setting are discussed.
By using the Adjective Check List (ACL) in its Japanese version, the concurrent validity of a personality inventory is investigated through canonical correlation analysis and procrustes factor rotation from the view of the Five Factor Model concerning personality traits. After describing the objective of the present paper, the principles both of canonical correlation analysis and of incomplete orthogonal procrustes factor rotation to be used are explained. And, following the description concerning samples and data for analysis, the results both based on the scales and on the items of the personality inventory are presented. The important role of procrustes type of factor rotation in editing personality inventory is stressed before closing the discussion.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the independent and interdependent construal of the self in relation to the cultural difference and personality traits. A scale developed by Kiuchi (1995) to measure the person on the dimension of independent versus interdependent, the SII was administered to three groups of students. The were: (1) 81 college students who once lived in Europe or America, (2) 99 students of a college of music, and (3) 296 undergraduates of other majors and backgrouds. Mean SII scores clearly showed that the first group gave the highest priority to independent construal of the self, the second music college group follows them, and the last group of regular undergraduates gave the highest priority to interdependent construal of the self. In addition, SII scores were shown to have significant correlations with social anxiety, self monitoring, sex identity, and self-esteem. Implication of these results are discussed.
In this study, scales were developed to measure responses to negative aspects of others' and own self enhancing presentation, and relationships among the scales and self-consciousness were examined. With factor analysis, the scale for responses to others' self-enhancing presentation was divided into three subscales: emotional, critical, and empathic. The scale for those of own self enhancing presentation was similarly divided into three: disliking, analytical, and accepting. The scales and self-consciousness scale (translated by Sakamoto, 1989) were administered to 373 university and professional school students (204 male and 169 female). The main findings were as follows: 1) Self-disliking and analytical subjects had high public self-consciousness and social anxiety, and tended to show high emotionality toward other's self enhancing presentation. 2) Self accepting subjects had high public selfconsciousness, and responded empathically, but not emotionally, to other's self enhancing presentation.
Distress responses of rats like screams are aversive for other rats. This study was conducted to determine some of the conditions affecting these aversive properties. Eighteen rats were trained to press a lever to obtain food on a FR4 schedule, then assigned to Shock-experienced group (SE), Overshadow group (OS), and Control group (CNT). SE received three 1-second shocks (1 mA) a day for two days in a grid-floor box. The procedure for OS was the same as that for SE except that a 40-W lamp was lit 30 seconds before the onset of the shock. CNT received neither lights nor shocks. During the next eight days, rats received FR4 schedule with the same procedure as for training except that lights (40 W) or screams (65dB) were presented for 1 minute. When lights were presented OS showed marked response suppression but SE and CNT showed little one. When screams were presented, SE Zrevealed strong suppression although CNT and OS showed weak one. These results indicate that aversion to screams was determined by Pavlovian conditioning.
In past studies, the concept of self acceptance has often been confused with self evaluation or self-esteem. The purpose of this study was to distinguish these concepts, and operationally define self-acceptance as Carl Rogers proposed: feeling all right toward the self when self-evaluation was low. Self-acceptance as adaptive resignation, a moderating variable, therefore should raise self-esteem of only those people with low self-evaluation. Self-acceptance was measuerd in the study as affirmative evaluation of own self-evaluation. Two hundred and forty college students, 120 each for men and women, completed a questionnaire of self-evaluative consciousness and self-esteem scales. Results of statistical analyses showed that among subjects with low self-evaluation, the higher self-acceptance, the higher the person's self-esteem, The same relation was not observed among those with high self-evaluation. Thus, it may be concluded that self-acceptance was adaptive resignation, and therefore meaningful to only those with low self evaluation.
This study investigated various psychological aspects of social networks of married women and their spouses. A survey data for 259 women and 185 men were analyzed, and main findings were as follows: 1. With marriage, support agents of women and men change extensively in their social networks. Wives have more variety in support agents within their social network, through children to their friends' parents. On the other hand, husbands' agents are likely to be confined to their wives and children. 2. Wives and husbands are similar in that their first choice for seeking advice is their spouse. A friend is the second choice for both of them. While parents, brothers and sisters serve as wives' third choice, there is no third for husbands. 3. Enrichment of wives' social network, based on a well-functioning relationship with husbands, leads to a lower degree of social isolation experienced by them.