A number of studies on probability judgment have reported that people often tend to neglect the base-rate in the Cab Problem (Bar-Hillel, 1980). To explain the base-rate neglect, the present research hypothesized that subjects presented with the Cab Problem focused on the case information in the problem, because the subjects were asked to estimate probability based on that particular case. In two experiments, subjects' individuated or general interpretation of the Cab Problem was manipulated by instructing the subjects to play either responsible or neutral judge's role, respectively. The results suggested that in the responsible judge condition the case information had large impact on subjects' judgment, whereas in the neutral judge condition it did not. These results implied that the subject's base-rate neglect arose from taking the individuated interpretation.
Rats given an antagonist against N-methyl-D-aspartate, (+) -10, 11-dihydro-5-methyl-5H-debenzo (a, d) cycloheptene-5, 10-imine (MK-801), were compared with control rats for their activity and exploratory behavior (habituation, exploration time to the spatial change of one of 4 objects and to the new object) in a circular open field. Rats given 0.07mg/kg dose of MK-801 displayed no significant differences with the controls. Rats given 0.1mg/kg dose of MK-801 failed to respond to the spatial change, whereas they displayed habituation and exploration to the new object at the same degree as the control rats. Rats given 0.3mg/kg dose of MK-801 displayed hyperactivity and did not display habituation and exploration. The result suggests that the 0.1mg/kg dose of MK-801, which dose not affect on activity, habituation and exploration to the new object in rats, selectively affects on acquisition of spatial information and reduces their spatial exploration.
This study concerns the sense of growth that children have of themselves, and attempted to show that differences in it can be explained in terms of ego developmental levels proposed by Loevinger. Seven hundred ninety-nine (799) children between 5th and 12th grades responded to a Sentence Completion Test (SCT) of ego development and sense of growth. Five ego developmental levels were identified: Impulsive, Self-Protective, Self-Protective/Conformist, Conformist, and the Self-Aware. The results confirmed the higher the age, the higher the ego developmental level, and the level affected what children thought about their growth. The answers to the SCT of low ego-development children had more overt characteristics such as physical development, whereas those of high children tended to include more covert aspects such as mental development.
This study examined whether cognitive conflict, reported by Eriksen and Eriksen (1974), could be explained by a model of reciprocal inhibition between correct and incorrect response preparation. Subjects responded selectively to a central target letter with flanking compatible (e.g., HHHHH) or incompatible (e.g., SSHSS) noise letters. In the mixed condition all four stimuli were mixed randomly in a block, and in the blocked condition only two stimuli with identical noises were used. The results showed that the reaction times to incompatible stimuli were delayed in the mixed condition compared with that to compatible stimuli, while the delay was significantly reduced in the blocked condition. This blocking effect was also shown on P3 latencies, an event-related potential measure of stimulus evaluation, but not on lateralized readiness potentials (LRPs), a measure of response preparation. Furthermore, irrespective of blocked/mixed conditions, LRPs indicating incorrect preparation were observed. These findings suggest that cognitive conflict could not be explained by the reciprocal inhibition model based on response preparation, but by a model based on stimulus evaluation.
The present study examined how children understand the processes concerning the strategic control of emotion. There are five components of this emergent metaemotive understanding: the children's knowledge of (1) the cues for identifying emotions, (2) the antecedents of emotions, (3) display rules, (4) the consequence of an emotional response, and (5) the strategies of emotional self-control. Five, seven and nine-year-old children were interviewed regarding their knowledge of these components. The following results were obtained. For identifying emotion, seven-year-olds tended to focus on the situational cues. Nine-year-olds were more likely to focus on the mental cues. The frequency of spontaneous usage of display rules increased with age. Nine-year-olds mentioned the cognitive self-control strategies such as re-directing their thoughts. The results were discussed in terms of developmental perspectives.
Two experiments were conducted to examine intergroup discrimination and illusory correlation in majority and minority members and outsiders of a group. In Experiment 1, allegedly based on social attitudes, 64 participants were divided into the three groups, and then completed a point distribution task in a minimal group paradigm. It was found that although both minority and majority members showed ingroup favoritism, outsiders favored neither majority nor minority. In Experiment 2, a continuation of Experiment 1, 45 statements were shown that described majority and minority members in favorable and unfavorable terms. The majority members perceive illusory correlations between the minority group and infrequent, unfavorable characteristics, whereas the minority members did not. The results suggest that for the majority, both distinctiveness-based cognitive bias and ingroup bias had the same effects on perception of illusory correlation, whereas for the minority, the two had opposite effects. The outsiders did not perceive any illusory correlation.
The purpose of this study is to examine recognition processes for Chinese and original words written in Hangul. It was tested whether or not the processing time for Chinese words is different from that for original words. In the first experiment, naming latencies for Chinese words were longer than those for original words. Also, the naming latencies for high-frequency-Chinese-words with final consonant (CVC+CVC) were shorter than those for high-frequency-Chinese-words without final consonant (CV+CV). The second experiment was conducted to clarify the lexical process by using the lexical decision task. The lexical decision times for Chinese words were not different from those for original words. The data suggest that the reading of Hangul words is mediated by lexical information as well as by phonological information.
The purpose of this study was to investigate people's expectation of others' ingroup favoritism, and the effect of expecting others to take part in reward allocation decision on ingroup favoritism in reward allocation. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups, and were asked to rate attractiveness of ingroup members, and to allocate reward to ingroup and outgroup under two conditions. In the unilateral condition, the subject alone was to make the decision, and in the multilateral condition, every subject was to. The results indicated that equally in all conditions, subjects rated ingroup members more attractive, and expected others to allocate more reward to own groups. Reward allocation that favored ingroup occurred only under the multilateral condition, where everyone participated in reward allocation, regardless of whether the subject's own reward was dependent on others' decisions or was a fixed amount. The findings suggest that ingroup favoritism was not a result of quasi-strategy of self-interest in an attempt to maximize own gains, but of psychological group formation.
Visual reaction time (RT) is reduced when the visual stimulus is paired with an auditory stimulus. This auditory stimulus is accessory in the sense that subjects need not to pay attention to it in the visual RT task. This study examined how the facilitation effect of the auditory accessory stimulus changes with varying the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between the two stimuli, and their intensities. The results showed that RTs are reduced as the visual stimulus is preceded by the auditory stimulus. Furthermore, RTs are transiently reduced when the two stimuli are presented at the same time. The magnitude of this facilitation is directly proportional to the intensity of the auditory stimulus and is inversely proportional to that of the visual stimulus. These findings suggest that there are two different kinds of facilitation effects on visual RTs made by the auditory accessory stimulus.