This study examined the impact of the spouse's death on the mental and physical health of the elderly, sixty years and older, and the buffering effect of social support against the impact. A three-year study was conducted of 1087 people whose spouses were alive at the time of the initial survey. Changes over the three-year period were compared among the following three groups: (1) the spouse died within a year prior to the second survey (N=21); (2) the spouse died more than a year before the survey (N=47); and (3) the spouse was still alive (N=901: the comparison group). Results were as follows: (1) Mental and physical health declined more rapidly in the first group than the comparison group, while no significant change was found for the second group. (2) Social support after the spouse loss significantly helped buffer the negative effect on the mental health, but support prior to the loss had no such effect. Social support had no moderating effect on the physical health.
The multiple goals theory of conflict management (Ohbuchi & Tedeschi, in press) postulated that participants in a conflict pursue to achieve resource goals (economic and personal resources) and social goals (relationship, identity, justice, and power-hostility). The hypotheses based on this theory were examined by the episode method, in which 207 university students were asked to rate their recent experiences of interpersonal conflicts in terms of participants' attributes, goals, and tactics. More than 80% of the subjects answered that they were motivated to achieve multiple goals in their attempts to resolve the conflicts. Social goals were found to be more strongly activated, and economic resource goals were least strongly activated. Regression analyses revealed that the effects of participants' attributes on tactical preference were mediated by goals.
The experiment of this paper studied the role social orientation would play in double-dilemma situations. In a double-dilemma situation, social dilemmas exist both between and within groups; a cooperation choice at the within-groups level is considered a defection choice at the between-groups level, and vice versa. Using such a situation, whether “others” in other-orientedness are limited to those of the ingroup or include those of a competing group was examined. Each of 132 college students played both an ordinary social dilemma game and a doubledilemma game, with equivalent incentive structures. Subjects' social orientation was measured a few days after the experiment. Results indicated that other-oriented subjects thought only about ingroup members, and did not care much about the others. Furthermore, social orientation did not affect whether subjects acted similarly or differently for the two dilemma situations. Therefore, social orientation approach to intergroup conflicts apparently had its limitations.
The purpose of this paper is to develop a new model for describing the cognitive process of decision making. Being of a generalization of Tversky and Koehler's Support Theory, the proposed model firstly defines the choice probability among several alternatives in terms of degree of “support.” Secondly the model defines the degree of support in terms of objective probability and representativeness. Thirdly, this model specifies the integration process by which one reaches the probability of an event utilizing the already assessed subevents. This model was applied to and tasted by, real experimental data. In the experiment, subjects were asked to evaluate the proportions (a kind of probability) and the degrees of representativeness of two objects. Compared to the estimates derived by a Bayesian approach, the subjective probabilities estimated by the proposed model were shown to be closer to those reported by the subjects.
The purpose of this study was to construct a new multidimensional self oriented perfectionism scale (MSPS) and to examine the relationship of self-oriented perfectionism to depression and hopelessness in college students. In Study 1, 26 original items of a new MSPS were administered to 132 students and factor analysis revealed 4 solutions: desire for perfectionism (DP), personal standard (PS), concern over mistakes (CM), and doubting of actions (D). Twenty items of the final MSPS had high reliability and validity as an instrument of measuring self-oriented perfectionism (Hewitt & Flett, 1991). In Study 2, 178 students completed a questionnare consisting of MSPS, stressor scale, depression scale, and hopelessness scale. PS was negatively related to hopelessness, and CM and D were positively related to both depression and hopelessness. Students with high CM scores had higher depression than those with low CM scores, unrelated to the degree of stress.
In this study, effects of self touching behavior on the performance of lexical retrieval were investigated. In Experiment 1, 52 women were required to retrieve Japanese idioms, and to recall them approximately 2 minutes after the retrieval. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups; in one group, they were tested with the restriction of their hand movement, whereas in the other group, they were allowed to move their hands freely. Results revealed that when the movement was restricted, their performance in the retrieval task was significantly deteriorated. In Experiment 2, after the presentation of tape-recorded verbal stimuli, 26 women were required to recall them either with an interval of 2 minutes or with an interval of 2 weeks. The self-touching behavior was found to occur more often when the recall was performed with the interval of 2 weeks than when it took place immediately after the stimulus presentation. Thus self-touching is considered to serve as a cue to retrieve information stored in the long term memory.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of achievement motive on the relationship between perceived social support and hopelessness in elementary school children. Two surveys were administered. The first examined the reliability and validity of an achievement motive scale with 273 4th through 6th graders children. The second examined the joint effect of achievement motive and perceived social support on the tendency to feel hopeless, with 410 children of the same age group. Results confirmed that the two-factor structure was indeed appropriate for an achievement motive scale, and that self-fulfilment achievement motive was a moderating variable of the relationship between perceived social support and hopelessness.
Effects of imagery ability and speech anxiety on imagery vividness of imaginary of speech scene were examined. Subjects were divided into four groups in terms of high and low scores of Scale of Mental Imagery-Short Form (SMI-S) and a speech anxiety scale. They imagined themselves in neutral, action and speech scenes. They wene asked to rate valence, arousal, and dominance of associated emotion, as well as imagery vividness, of each scene. An SMI-S effect was found on the vividness for neutral and action scenes. For vividness of the speech scene, however, speech anxiety had a stronger effect than imagery ability. The subjects with high speech anxiety significantly decreased imagery vividness, and experienced stronger arousal during imaginary speech. Good-imagery subjects with high speech anxiety reported stronger arousal than poor-imagery subjects. These results suggested that speech anxiety was a major determinant of imagery vividness of imaginary of speech scene.
Time estimation of shooting and viewing activities with a video camera was investigated with the time production method in three conditions. In the shooting condition, 13 subjects shot and videotaped an object (i.e., a white sphere or a white dog statue) with a video camera. In the viewfinder condition, the subjects viewed the object through the viewfinder of the camera without videotaping. In the viewing condition, the subjects viewed the object without the camera. Experimental results indicated that the subjects estimated the duration shorter under the shooting condition than under the viewing condition. On the other hand, no significant difference in the time judgments was found between the viewfinder condition and the other conditions. These findings suggest that time estimation of shooting is affected by videotaping (i.e., recording) in addition to framing.