This study examined the effects of individual difference and situation on risk taking behavior. In Experiment 1, 115 undergraduates completed a questionnaire of personality (sensation seeking, optimism, etc.) and their risk taking behavior, risk perception, and anxiety in eight situations: personal, social, gain-loss, and loss situations. Results indicated an effect of personality on risk taking behavior in personal gain-loss situations (sports and life event), which was mediated by perceived risk controllability. In Experiment 2, 137 undergraduates completed a questionnaire of personality, cognitive variables (risk perception, own competence, and perceived cost and benefit), and risk taking behavior in personal gain-loss situations (sports, life event, and gambling). Results of covariance structure analysis showed that perceived risk controllability affected the relationship between the variables. For instance, risk significance and perceived cost and benefit mediated the effect of ‘controllability with skills’ on risk taking behavior in the controllable situation (e.g., sports). Similarly, competence and risk perception mediated the effect of ‘uncontrollable luck factors’ in the chance situation (e.g., life event).
The present study investigated the effects of media violence on affective, cognitive, and physiological reactions of viewers. Eighty undergraduate students (male=40, female=40) participated in the experiment. First, subjects were exposed to one of four violent films whose levels of violence and entertainment were based on ratings taken in a previous study (Yoshida & Yukawa, 1996). Immediately after viewing the film, subjects described their thoughts which occurred during watching the film and rated thier affective reactions toward the film. Heart rate and eyeblink rate as indicators of physiological arousal were measured continuously before, during, and after the film. Results showed that the film high in violence elicited more negative and empty-powerless affects, while the film high in entertainment evoked more positive affects.
The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanism underlying fundamental dimensions in recognition of facial expressions, using the prolonged viewing method. Pictures of female faces were used, which displayed one of the following six: happiness, sadness, surprise, anger, disgust, and neutral expressions. In Experiment 1, the mean ratings of each expression on each picture were analyzed with principal component analysis (PCA). In Experiment 2, subjects orally judged the expressions of test faces following either one or 25 seconds of viewing of an adaptation face. Significant delays occurred in the prolonged viewing condition only when the adaptation face had a higher absolute value on ‘pleasantness, ’ the first component of PCA, than the test face. In contrast, adaptation faces that were high only on ‘arousal, ’ the second component, produced no such effects. It was suggested that there are at least two subsystems involved in the recognition of facial expressions and that each system has different temporal characteristics.
This study examined the possibility of holistic processing of Japanese Kana words by using three different tasks: lexical decision, naming, and letter-search. Twenty to twenty-four university students participated in each task. All of the words used in the experiments were foreign loan-words normally written in Katakana. In order to disrupt holistic processing in word recognition, the Katakana words were transcribed into either Hiragana or a mixture of Katakana and Hiragana. For the lexical decision task, the disruptive effects were larger for words than nonword controls. However, for the naming task, the script type manipulation had an equal effect on words and nonwords. Lastly, for the letter-search task, the word superiority effect on reaction time for the Hiragana stimuli was approximately the same magnitude as that for the Katakana stimuli. These findings can be interpreted within the framework of Besner and Johnston's (1989) processing model, and suggest that Kana words are identified primarily on the basis of letter level information rather than their holistic property.
Preference for high frequency sounds in human infants are found by other researchers. The purpose of this study is to examine whether nonhuman primates also have the same tendency as human infants. It is important to consider language origins. Two types of tape recorded coo calls, contact calls, with high and low fundamental frequencies were played back as stimuli for two groups of Japanese macaques (Maraca fuscata). The result showed that the animals of both groups preferred high frequency sounds. To ascertain whether other species also have the same tendency as the Japanese macaques, a playback experiment similar to that for Japanese macaques was conducted for one group of ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Tape recorded mew calls, contact calls, were used as stimuli. The results showed that ringtailed lemurs also preferred high frequency sounds. Moreover, it was clarified by an additional playback experiment for one group of Japanese macaques that animals had an affective preference for high frequency sounds. These results suggest that nonhuman primates have a consistent tendency to prefer high frequency sounds.
This study examined the effects of modality on rats' short-term memory by using the go/no-go delayed paired stimuli comparison task (Konorski task). Each of paired stimuli (S1, S2) was successively presented in order with delay intervals, and a food pellet was contingent upon the lever pressing only when S2 matched S1 (light; L or tone; T). The accuracy of discrimination between the matched and nonmatched pairs decreased as a function of delay interval. Steeper forgetting was shown when a visual stimulus was presented as S1 (S1-L trials) than when an auditory S1 (S1-T trials) was presented. The longer was the ITI duration, the better was the performance in the S1-T trials, but this was not true for the S1-L trials. Further, discrimination performance was an increasing function of the duration of S1 regardless of the modality of S1. These results were discussed mainly on the basis of interference theory and decay theory of forgetting.
Using Doise spatial task, this study examined the following three hypotheses about preschoolers' attainment of spatial skills: (1) A different viewpoint promotes faster advancement through developmental levels of spatial skills than the same viewpoint. (2) An interaction partner with a different skill level, rather than the same level, promotes faster advancement. And (3) a socio-cognitive conflict with the partner promotes faster advancement. To test these hypotheses, the method of Doise and Mugny (1984) was used in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, the method was modified in several ways. most notably by pointing out and changing the shape of the marker, and by decreasing the number of objects to be arranged. Results of the experiments supported Hypothesis 3, but not 1 or 2. It was concluded that socio-cognitive conflicts in preschooler peer interaction contributed to children's development of spatial skills.
The purpose of this study was to examine determinants of time-monitoring to clarify the cognitive process in prospective memory tasks (i.e., tasks which require the timely execution of a previously intended action). Thirty-two participants were asked to perform future activities three minutes after the start of backgound tasks, and their time-monitoring responses were recorded. The results showed that higher motivation and less cognitive load led to higher time-monitoring frequency and better performance in prospective memory tasks. However, with time presentation, time-monitoring frequency could be reduced, while the performance in prospective memory tasks was improved. The findings indicate that information which facilitates the maintenance of inner time model is an important factor for effective time-monitoring. This study suggested that frequency of time-monitoring could be regarded as a critical factor in the theoretical analysis of prospective memory tasks.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between subjective well-being and self acceptance, and to design a happiness self-writing program to increase self acceptance and subjective well-being of adolescents. In study 1, we examined the relationship between social interaction and self acceptance. In study 2, we created a happiness self writing program in cognitive behavioral approach, and examined whether the program promoted self acceptance and subjective well-being. Results indicated that acceptance of self-openness, an aspect of self acceptance, was related to subjective well-being. The happiness self-writing program increased subjective well-being, but it was not found to have increased self acceptance. It was discussed why the program could promote subjective well-being, but not self acceptance.
The purpose of the experiment was to investigate the feasibility of using contingent negative variation (CNV) as an index of detection of deception. Twelve subjects were required to complete both an innocent and a guilty condition in that order. In the innocent condition, a series of six pictures, two of which depicted different landscapes and four others which depicted different female faces, was presented repeatedly on a computer display. Subjects responded by pressing a button following the landscape picture (target stimulus) that was presented last in the sequence. In the guilty condition, the procedures were the same except that subjects were also required not to detect one of the female pictures in mind (critical item), which they had chosen after the completion of the innocent condition. As compared with the innocent condition, the CNV amplitudes decreased significantly immediately before the target stimulus in the guilty condition where subjects had to conceal the critical item. The implication of these data both for the psychological completion of the concealed task and the practice in the field were discussed.