Even when the amount of loss reduction is exactly the same, a protective action that leaves no loss may be valued more than others that leave some. It is called “zero-risk effect, ” which was examined in this study. One hundred and forty-four undergraduates rated their willingness to pay (WTP) for three protective actions that would leave 800, 400, or 0 deaths. Results showed that the WTP difference between actions resulting in 400 deaths and no death was larger than that between actions resulting in 800 deaths and 400 deaths. The effect was shown not only in a negative framing condition, but also in a positive one. The results thus established the robustness of zero-risk effect, which cannot be explained in terms of the negative framing effect. Finally, implications for risk management and risk communication were discussed.
With the use of rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), the present study investigated the cause of target intrusion errors and functioning of monitoring processes. Eighteen students participated in Experiment 1, and 24 in Experiment 2. In Experiment 1, different target intrusion errors were found depending on different kinds of letters-romaji, hiragana, and kanji. In Experiment 2, stimulus set size and context information were manipulated in an attempt to explore the cause of post-target intrusion errors. Results showed that as stimulus set size increased, the post-target intrusion errors also increased, but contextual information did not affect the errors. Results concerning mean report probability indicated that increased allocation of attentional resource to response-defining dimension was the cause of the errors. In addition, results concerning confidence rating showed that monitoring of temporal and contextual information was extremely accurate, but it was not so for stimulus information. These results suggest that attentional resource is different from monitoring resource.
Many previous studies on symmetry perception indicated the importance of the intrinsic feature in mirror symmetry that the symmetry axis orthogonally bisects virtual lines between the symmetry pairs in detecting their 2-D mirror symmetry. In the present study, we used 2-D mirror symmetrical dot patterns on a plane in 3-D space which were rotated in depth and projected on a frontal plane with the central projection method. Using these stimuli, we investigated the validity of the above feature in the detection of 2-D symmetrical structure in 3-D space. The results showed that 2-D symmetry is detected quickly and exactly in many conditions even if the symmetrical patterns do not hold the above intrinsic feature. In addition, the results of our experiments indicated that symmetry axis has some effects on detection of 2-D symmetry pattern in 3-D space as in the case of the usual 2-D symmetry detection.
A causal model of job stressors and stress reactions was examined to clarify the developmental process of employee maladjustment in workplace. Two thousand seven hundred twenty-eight (2728) employees of a research institute in the automobile industry completed Job Stress Scale (JSS), which measured job stressors, stress reactions, coping strategies, and social support. Three hundred ninety-two (392) employees with high stress reaction scores were interviewed to obtain information to construct a theoretical model. Then, the model was evaluated with covariance structure analysis. Results showed that the quantitative job stressors had only an indirect effect, mediated by fatigue and irritability, on mental instability, whereas qualitative ones had both direct and indirect effects. The findings suggest that the developmental processes of employee maladjustment in work place differ depending on the kind of job stressors they experience.
We conducted an experiment to evaluate the statistical efficiency of human for discrimination between 3-D symmetry, i.e., the 3-D pattern symmetrical about a sagittal plane, and 3-D random which was non-symmetrical about a sagittal plane but symmetrical about a vertical axis in the fronto-parallel projection plane. We added Gaussian depth noise to the 3-D symmetry pattern and the 3-D random pattern. The discriminability (d′) of the observers was obtained, and was compared with that of the ideal cross correlator. In general, the efficiency was lower than that for 2-D symmetry discrimination, but similar to that for other 3-D tasks using dot stereograms. Moreover, the efficiency for 3-D symmetry discrimination was lower when the pattern was composed of more elements, and it decreased along with increment of the noise variance in longer duration condition (1500ms). From this result, we estimated the number of elements which observer sampled in performing the task.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among job satisfaction, job involvement, and work motivation. Two hundred thirty-nine sales people completed a questionnaire of job satisfaction (pay, interpersonal relationship, work environment, and job content), job involvement, and work motivation. The data were analyzed with covariance structure analysis, and the model, which was constructed beforehand, fitted well with relatively high GFI and AGFI. Results of the analysis showed that job satisfaction, in terms of pay and interpersonal relationship, influenced job content satisfaction, which in turn indirectly influenced work motivation, mediated through job involvement. In addition, the data indicated that satisfaction with customer relationship was strongly related to job content satisfaction in the sample of sales people.
Blood pressure and heart rate were assessed in 20 old (65-82), 20 middle (35-51), and 50 young (20-26) people during an aspiration performance task, and the GHQ and tree test were given preceding the aspiration task. More older than younger subjects exhibited systolic and diastolic blood pressure increases during the task; heart rate was faster in the older subjects. While there were no GHQ differences among the groups, the trunk length measured from ground to the lowest branch compared to the total height of tree for older subjects was larger than that of younger subjects. Behavioral measures reflecting aspiration levels were discussed in relation to aging.
The purpose of this study was to investigate preschoolers' ability in judging the plausibility of arguments in Category Based Induction. Experiment 1 was conducted to clarify whether five- and six-year-old children could judge plausibility of general arguments by analyzing the inclusive category of conclusion. The effect of premise typicality, premise diversity, and premise monotonicity of general arguments were examined for this purpose. All the three premise effects were found in six-year-old children, while only the effect of premise monotonicity was found in five-year-old children. In Experiment 2, the effect of premise non-monotonicity was tested to clarify whether children could judge plausibility of arguments by recognizing an inclusion relationship between premise and conclusion categories. The effect of premise non-monotonicity was found in five-year-old children, though it was not perfect. The results of the two experiments suggest that development of Category Based Induction can be divided into two stages. At first, “category based” induction, which means that children can judge plausibility of arguments by recognizing inclusion relationship between premise and conclusion categories, is established from five to six. Later, “category structure based” induction, which means that children can judge plausibility of arguments based on analysis of inclusive category of conclusion, is achieved six and above.