Contrary to the common sense idea that trustful people are gullible and easily believe whatever other people may say, past research reviewed by Rotter (1980a) indicated the idea was not necessarily valid. Two experiments of this paper further demonstrated that trustful people are more sensitive to information that indicates lack of trustworthiness in other people. In the experiments, subjects read a series of stories in which a person was about to make a choice between a trustworthy action and an untrustworthy one. Some of them were also given pieces of information regarding trustworthiness of the person. They were then asked to predict the likelihood of the person taking a trustworthy action. When no information was given, high trusters predicted with higher probability than low trusters that the person would take a trustworthy action. On the other hand, the high trusters lowered the predicted likelihood more steeply than the low when negative information was provided.
It is an open question how simple features are integrated in the attention spotlight. In this paper, we examined two opposing models for the integration process of shape and color. One is a local conjunction model in which simple features of shape and color are combined directly. The other is a whole conjunction model in which simple features of shape are integrated into the whole shape and then it is combined with color. In Experiment 1, we measured the time required to search for a target defined by a conjunction of shape and color for five subjects with changing coloring of the figures. The slope of the search function was gentler when corners of figures were colored (p<0.01). In Experiment 2, we measured the time required to integrate shape and color of figures presented in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) for five subjects. The presentation time required to answer the correct combination was shorter when corners were colored (p<0, 01). These results support the local conjunction model.
Phonological priming effects on auditory event-related brain potentials were compared across different numbers of syllables shared between target words and preceding prime words or pseudowords. All items of words and pseudowords consisted of 3 syllables, and the subject's task was to make a judgment whether the item belonged to a designated category. A large negative wave (N400), commencing at about 250ms poststimulus and lasting for about 700ms, was observed irrespective of primes and targets. When targets were preceded by word-primes that shared the first one or two syllables, the onset of N400 at the frontal site was earlier and the initial negative-going phase was steeper than in other conditions. In contrast, the magnitude of N400 to targets was reduced, when the primes were pseudowords that shared the first two syllables. These two types of early and later Phonological priming effects were interpreted to reflect facilitations during spoken word recognition at the pre-lexical (phonological) and post-lexical (semantic or contextual integration) levels, respectively.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of affective intensity and pleasantness on memory. One hundred and nineteen undergraduates read 15 dialogues, taking one speaker's position, and then rated each dialogue on two emotional dimensions. One hour later, subjects were given an incidental memory test about the dialogues. In agreement with most research done so far, recall for affectively intense dialogues was better than recall less intense dialogues. More importantly, it was indicated that recall for pleasant dialogues was better than that for unpleasant dialogues when the intensity level was high. It is neccesary to consider not only affective intensity but also pleasantness when the relation between affective nature of stimuli and recall is discussed.
Two models-the weighted averaging model and the anchoring and adjustment model-have been proposed to explain the base-rate neglect. In an attempt to test these two models, the cab problem (Bar-Hillel, 1980) was presented in two conditions. In one condition, the probability in case information was presented numerically, and in another, it was presented verbally. According to the weighted averaging model, subjects' estimates under verbal expression condition were predicted to be equal to or lower than the probability implied by the verbal expression, because legibility of verbal expression made subjects afford to consider base-rate. According to the anchoring and adjustment model, on the other hand, subjects' estimates under verbal expression condition were predicted to be higher than the probability implied by that expression (counter base-rate effect), because under a directional hypothesis that “blue cab was in accident”, in anchoring process, ambiguity of verbal expression was dragged. Results of three experiments were found to be consistent with the prediction from the anchoring and adjustment model.
The age related slowing in cognitive processing speed was investigated with a mental rotation task. Slope of regression line predicting reaction time from rotation angle was assumed to be an index of mental rotation speed, and the intercept increase when the task was changed standard to mirror image, an index of decision process speed. Three groups were compared: young control (mean age=19.1), younger elderly (M=69.5) and older elderly (M=79.0). In the mental rotation speed, an age difference between the control and older groups, but not between the older groups, was found. However, the decision process speed differed no only between the control and older groups, but also between the two older groups. These findings indicated that the effect of aging was larger on decision process than on mental rotation.
The present study examined, based on Information Manipulation Theory, four hypotheses concerning perceived deceptiveness of verbal message, derived from preliminary research. The hypotheses were: (1) An ambiguous message is perceived as more deceptive than an unambiguous one. (2) A message with contents of low frequency of occurrence and low verifiability is perceived as more deceptive than otherwise. (3) Perceived deceptiveness has a U-shaped relationship with length of message. (4) A message violating two maxims is perceived as more deceptive than that violating only one. An examination using a questionnaire, with 102 business college students, supported hypotheses (1) and (2). Examination of hypotheses (3) and (4) is left for future research. The computer program “GPOWER” was used in order to obtain appropriate sample size.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of interviewer distance on interviewee eyeblinks and heart rates. The interviewer was a 22 year-old woman, and 21 undergraduates, eight men and 13 women, participated in the study as interviewees. Interviews were conducted under three distance conditions: close (0.8m), middle (2.0m), and distant (4.0m). A polygraph recorded the interviewee's eyeblinks and heart rates during the interview. After the interview, the interviewee rated his/her own psychological state during the interview, and reported impressions of the interviewer. Results showed that interviewees blinked more frequently in the close condition than the other conditions. No significant effect was found on heart rate. Interviewees rated their psychological state as more negative in the close condition, but impressions to the interviewer remained the same across the conditions. These results indicated that eyeblink is a useful physiological index of effects that interpersonal situations have.
Judging whether words refer to oneself results in better memory than judging words on a semantic or physical basis. This phenomenon is known as self-reference effect. It is assumed that people encode more attribute when they are engaged in self-referent processing than when they are engaged in other types of processing, but it is not clear what kinds of attributes are encoded. In this study, the performance patterns of three judgment types (self, semantic, and physical) were measured in two conditions: A perceptual implicit memory test (the word-stem completion condition) and a conceptual explicit memory test (the word-stem cued recall condition). The results showed that in the explicit condition, both the self reference effect and the levels-of-processing effect were obtained, but in the implicit condition, all judgments produced the same memory performance. This finding suggests that self-referent judgment produces a perceptual encoding that is similar to a perceptual encoding in semantic or physical judgment, and, that self-referent judgment produces more semantic and conceptual encoding than semantic or physical judgment.