Normal infants start to produce canonical babbling (CB) at the age of 6 to 10 months. CB consists of reduplicated sequences of consonant-vowel syllables which have adult-like acoustical features. Therefore, onset of CB is considered to be a landmark in the development of spoken language. The previous study indicated that a behavioral synchronization of vocalizations with rhythmic actions occurred in infants before the onset of CB. The present study examined the function of synchronization. Acoustical analyses were conducted on vocalizations of four infants during three-months-period including the month when synchronization occurred most frequently. The results show that both utterance length and formant frequency transition duration of synchronized vocalizations are shorter than those of non-synchronized vocalizations. These acoustical features, which are required to produce CB, persisted even after the synchronization has disappeared. The present study suggests that synchronization of vocalizations with rhythmic actions has the function of prompting infants to produce CB.
This study investigated the influence of positive and negative moods on sentence writing. Short animated video clips, inducing either a positive or negative mood, were shown to 60 female undergraduates. Then, they wrote five sentences under one of two conditions: the sentences were to begin with “I” or “M” (a third person) as the subject. Main results were as follows: with the first person pronoun as the subject, the negative mood group showed a mood-congruency effect for the first sentence, and a mood-incongruency effect for the second to fifth sentence, with “M” as the sentence subject, the negative mood group showed a mood-incongruency effect for all the five sentences. The positive mood group showed a mood-congruency effect for all the sentences, regardless of “I” or “M” condition. Furthermore, under “I” condition, the students in the negative mood group reported their desire to change their mood. It is concluded that mood-incongruency effect on writing depended on the subject of the sentence.
Jacoby (1991) proposed a process-dissociation procedure to estimate contributions of conscious and unconscious processes to cognitive task performance. The present research examined the inner processing mechanism underlying the procedure. Thirty-two female undergraduates learned a list of visual stimulus words and another of auditory stimulus. They then performed recognition memory tasks in which conscious and unconscious memory components presumably either help or interfere with each other. Memory performance, response latency, and eyeblink activity were analyzed based on the framework of the process-dissociation procedure. A three-process model of recognition, with an underlying hypothetical processing mechanism, was proposed to explain the complicated results obtained of the three dependent measures.
Previous studies on audio-visual interaction such as the ventriloquism effect have indicated cognitive (or context) factors as well as sensory (or synchronous) factors could make the interaction. In these studies, however, visual attention seems to have been neglected. Thus, it has been still unknown whether the visual attention affects the interaction or not. We investigated the contribution of the attention factors to the audio-visual interaction by comparing the sound localization biases made by attentional factors and those by synchronous factors. Three subjects participated in the localization tasks in horizontal and vertical orientations. As the results, we found small influence of the attentional factors upon the interaction in the horizontal orientation, and no influence in the vertical orientation. On the contrary, the effect of the synchronous factors was larger in the vertical orientation than in the horizontal orientation. We concluded that the visual attention could affect the audio-visual interaction slightly, and that the influences of the attentional factors and the perceptual factors upon the interactions were made in the different processes.
The main purpose was to investigate the TEG (Tokyo University Egogram) from the personality trait theoretic point of view based on the Five-Factor Model (FFM). Three kinds of the factor rotational topics were discussed in order. First, the Jöreskog's (1965) incomplete oblique rocrustes factor rotation both for the TEG and the ACL was applied with the targets specified only for the ACL (Table 1). Second, the same type of incomplete oblique procrustes rotation for both the TEG and the ACL were applied with the targets specified only for the TEG. In order to save space, only the corresponding oblique solution for the TEG was presented together with its orthogonal one for comparison (Table 2). Third, the numbers of the TEG items italicized values in Table 1 were presented for the help of understanding the concepts of the TEG in terms of FFM (Table 3a), and also the mutual correlational relations were presented in terms of their corresponding orthogonally rotated axes (Table 3b). Some related matters were described before closing discussion.
Three naturalistic experiments were conducted to investigate the context-dependent memory induced by contextual changes between class and intermission. In all the experiments, junior college students served as subjects. The experimenter in a class session was their teacher, and the experimenters in an intermission session were other students with whom the subjects were acquainted. In Experiment 1, one group of subjects was tested in the same class as encoding, and another group was tested in the intermission at a different place, 60 seconds after their encoding of to-be-remembered items in class. In Experiment 2, the place factor (types of the room) and the non-place factor (class vs. intermission) were orthogonally manipulated. The retention interval was one week. In Experiments 1 and 2, the results revealed clear context-dependent memory. Furthermore, the context-dependent memory was produced by the changes in the non-place component of the context but not by those in the place component. Experiment 3 confirmed that the results were due to the context-dependent memory rather than to any other factors of experimental design.
The purpose of this study was to extract the factor structure of coping strategies and to examine their direct and indirect effects on burnout. Eight hundred thirty four valid responses obtained from primary caregivers of impaired persons aged 65 years old and over living in the community were analyzed. The results of covariance structural analysis were as follows: Three second order factors, including “Approach”, “Avoidance, ” and “Support seeking, ” were extracted. Five factors, “Keeping their own pace, ” “Positive acceptance of caregiving role, ” “Diversion, ” “Informal support seeking, ” and “Formal support seeking, ” were extracted as first order factors. “Keeping their own pace, ” directly decreased burnout and “Diversion” indirectly decreased burnout through caregiving involvement. “Informal support seeking” directly increased burnout and “Positive acceptance of caregiving role” indirectly increased burnout through caregiving involvement.
The present study examined whether adults' inferences about word meanings are influenced by others' actions upon objects, shape bias, and labeling the objects. In Experiment 1, an experimenter presented 24 Japanese adults a nonsense label with standard solid object that was either rigid (e.g., steel) or flexible (e.g., sponge). The experimenter performed an action on the object that emphasized the shape (e.g., rolling) or the material (e.g., squeezing) of these standards. The experimenter then asked these adults to choose a novel object likely to share the label with the standard from one with the same shape and one with the same material. In Experiment 2, the experimenter asked 32 Japanese adults to choose an object with and without nonsense labels. The results showed that the adults used action information to make their choices regardless of the presence of labels. When labels were provided, the adults attended action information in a greater degree than when no labels were provided.