The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between arousal level and blink activity; blink rate, blink amplitude and blink duration. Blink activity was examined under two different tasks in which arousal level was manipulated. One was a vigilance task (Experiment 1) for comparatively high arousal level. The other was a simple counting task in a dark and quiet room (Experiment 2) for extremely lower arousal level. Results indicated that blink rates and blink durations tended to increase as arousal level got lower in the monotonous vigilance task situations, meanwhile, blink rates and blink amplitudes decreased as a function of negative arousal level in the pre-sleep situation.
Recent computer simulation studies (Takahashi & Yamagishi, 1995, 1996) suggest the possibility that altruists outperform egoists, and the key to their advantage is a strategy called Downward OFT. The strategy calls for acting always altruistically, at the same time selecting as the target of the altruism the most altruistic person among potential recipients. The main purpose of this study was to examine whether people actually follow Downward OFT in a situation where no direct reciprocity was possible. Results were as follows: (1) Pure generalized exchange (i.e., unilateral recourse giving) did emerge and persisted over forty-five trials. (2) Subjects selected other altruists as recipients of their unilateral resource giving. (3) The tendency of altruistic subjects to discriminate among potential recipients of their altruism was stronger than that of self interested subjects. (4) Subjects who unilaterally gave more resource ended up with more profit (resource received minus resource given) than those who gave less.
Erects of marital communication and friendship- and job-related social activities on emotional support ana alienation among married women and men were examined. Causal analyses of questionnaire responses by 259 women and 185 men indicated that for both women and men, richness of marital communication made the spouse more important as the agent of emotional support, and at the same time decreased alienation. Job-related activities decreased women's alienation, while they tended to increase men's alienation. Men's social activities had a negative influence on their marital relation. In short, women and men appeared to seek different psychological functions in social activities, which in turn determined their levels of alienation.
Aversive behaviors of rats to the conditioned stimulus in the course of classical conditioning of a light (CS) and electric-shock (US) were analyzed using a stabilimeter. For the Classical Conditioning (CC) group (n=5), CS was preceded 5 s to US (1 s) using delayed conditioning procedure in the 3 daily sessions each of which was consisted of 30 reinforeing trials. For the US group (n=5), US (1 s) was presented at the same time as CC group without any CS. The results showed that the activity of the CC group during CS increased as the trials progressed, but it was not changed in the US group. Thus, animals made various kinds of activities during the CS, and these were not reflexes to the presentation of the CS but were responses that have long latencies.
The purpose of this study was to examine the ‘agari’ experiences in everyday life. ‘Agari’ is a Japanese noun (the verb form is ‘agaru’), referring to broad experiences including stage-fright, choking under pressure, social anxiety, and so on. Based upon the self-reports of 452 subjects, we constructed, in Study 1, a 52-items Features of ‘Agari’ Experience Questionnaire (FAEQ). In Study 2, another sample of 364 completed the FAEQ, and factor analysis was performed. The analysis found six primary factors: Self insufficiency, physical insufficiency, trembling, pressure, physiological response, and awareness of others. A second-order factor analysis was performed on them, and two factors emerged: Self reflection and awareness of self-importance. It may be therefore concluded that looking at the self leads to an ‘agari’ experience. In addition, hierarchical cluster analysis divided twelve ‘agari’ situations into four clusters. The clusters were differentiated by two factors of FAEQ. It is suggested that eliciting situations and associated cognitive appraisals differentiated ‘agari’ experiences.
The processing of Japanese written words has been supposed to depend only on their script, namely Kanji or Kana. There are, however, Kanji-Kana-combined-words (KKW; e.g., _??__??__??_), which signify their meanings as a whole. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the recognition unit corresponding to visual form information of the KKW is used in the lexical decision task. Experiment I showed that the more the number of the Kana letters was, the longer the recognition time of the KKW with unfamiliar script (e.g., _??__??__??_) was, while the effect was not obtained for the KKW with familiar script (e.g., _??__??__??_). In Experiment II, the lexical decision latency tended to be reduced by the existence of blank (s) between letters in the KKW with unfamiliar script. However, this effect was not obtained for the KKW with unfamiliar script. All these results suggest that the KKW is processed using the recognition unit which corresponds to visual form information of the whole-word.
The processes involved in writing Japanese two-morpheme (Kanji) compound words were investigated to examine the effects of word frequency and Kanji orthographic complexity (i.e., number of strokes). Initiation times for writing heard words revealed that orthographic complexity affected low frequency words (complex 2 689 ms vs. simple 2 395 ms), but not high frequency words (complex 2 124 ms vs. simple 2 150 ms). The interval between writing of the two morphemes also showed this trend (low frequency, complex 693 ms vs. 417 ms; high frequency, complex 478 ms vs. simple 386 ms). The word frequency effect was not apparent in the actual writing time of the right-hand character, although the writing time of the left-hand character varied according to word frequency and, naturally, orthographic complexity. However, there was no interaction between these factors. The explanation was given that, in the case of high-frequency compound words, the two constituent morphemes are tightly bound together, so that subjects are able to easily hold the whole-word unit in the working memory to execute writing. By contrast, for low-frequency compound words, the binding of the two morphemes is not strong, and subjects must therefore refer back to the orthographic representations of the individual morphemes. Thus, activation of both morpheme and word units occurs in the process of writing compound words depending upon word frequency and orthographic complexity.
After briefly describing the need for ethics in the development of professional regulation and analyzing the historical emergence of codes of ethics, the goal of this paper is to scrutinize the process by which the American Psychological Association developed its own Code of Ethics and proceeded to revise it periodically. Different lessons can be derived from these efforts and from the criticisms that were formulated. The need for international standards in professional and research ethics is then considered, and the results of a recent study on this subject are presented. Five major conclusions can be derived from the preceding analysis: (1) Codes of ethics can help professional recognition by stressing the importance given to the protection of the public, (2) the development of a code of ethics is usually related to the advancement of professional practice, (3) ethical standards should be in tune with the cultural values and the belief system of a given community, (4) a well-balanced code should incorporate both general aspirational principles and enforceable standards, and (5) the method used to define principles and standards should be empirically based.