An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of respondent revised progressive relaxation by Mitani Method (new PR) on left frontal (Fpl) electromyogram (EMG) and electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha waves. 20 subjects, 10 males, 10 females, mean age=29, SD=10.05, were divided into the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group received the respondent new PR. Intermittent two minutes vibrations and five mimutes rests, namely DV 15-9-4.5 V vibration were given at shoulder and leg. The Fpl integrated EMG, integrated alpha wave and time of α wave appearance were measured by Mitani System. Results showed that only the experimenal group showed significant integrated EMG reduction at Fpl. Alpha waves tended to appear more frequently. Integrated α wave, however, decreased significantly. Combined mean of integrated EMG and integrated α wave also decreased significantly. These results suggest the quick reduction of energy expenditure or entering into a deep relaxation of neuro-muscle circuit by the mechanical respondent New PR. As for operant New PR, experiment including such EEG data is not yet performed.
This study investigated whether cognitions and emotions elicited by media violence mediate aggressive behavior. Eighty undergraduates, 40 men and 40 women, participated in the experiment. First, subjects were exposed to one of four violent videos which varied in levels of violence and entertainment. Subjects' heart rate and eyeblink rate were continuously recorded while they watched the video. After watching it, subjects described their thoughts which occurred while watching it and rated their affective reactions to it. Finally, their aggressive behavior was measured. Results showed that (1) videos high in violence elicited more aggressive thoughts, more thoughts of negative affect, stronger negative affects, and stronger empty-powerless affects, whereas videos high in entertainment elicited stronger positive affects; (2) no significant differences were found among the videos in terms of physiological reactions and aggressive behavior; and (3) cognitions and emotions elicited by media violence did not mediate aggressive behavior.
This study assessed how time brings out changes in one's mental and physical reactions to traumatic experiences. Two surveys were conducted on students of Kobe College, located at one of the areas hardest hit by the Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in January, 1995. Much of the traumatic reactions decreased in strength through January to March, while feelings of survival guilt did not. Guilt feelings of those whose housing were destroyed increased in March, and kept its level even in October. Although general health conditions of those surveyed in October was normal, several post-traumatic reactions increased in October as compared with March. The rate of recovery from post-traumatic reactions seemed to very according to the depth of one's psychological suffering, to one's financial situation, and to the presence of social support. The factor analysis on the items of mental and physical reactions yielded seven factors. The factor of highest eigenvalue in January was one named “anxiety about after-quake tremors”, however, this was replaced by one named “emotional confusions” in March.
Performance superiority of the addition of features in the stimuli over the deletion on recognition (asymmetric confusability effect) has been shown in previous studies (Pezdek, Maki, Valencia-Laver, Whetstone, Stoeckert, & Dougherty, 1988; Ando & Hakoda, 1998). We investigated the same effect by using a familiar living thing (cat) as a stimulus. Ten subjects were given a recognition task using pictures of cats with feature changes (additions, deletions, or no change). Results showed that the picture with deletions were easier to recognize than those with additions, which was opposite to the previous studies. Then, we examined the possibility that performance superiority of the deletions over the additons was mediated by the factor of impression. Another group of 18 subjects was asked to rate the impression scales consisting of a “typicality-reality factor”, a “stability-balance factor”, and a “grotesque-disgust factor”. Results showed that there was a significant difference in impression ratings for each factor between the additions and the deletions, and that impression ratings predicted recognition performance well. It was concluded that performance superiority of the deletions over the additions was mediated by the factor of impression.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the process by which collage material was chosen, by looking at the structure in material pictures in terms of their transitive chain and connection strength, and investigate the relationship between planning prosess and artwork characteristics. For the purpose, successive choices of material pictures were analyzed, and graph theory applied. Forty mentally retarded and normal subjects participated in an experiment of collage work production. The transitive chain of collage material pictures for normal subjects was long (deep) and showed story development, and connections among material pictures were strong. On the other hand, the chain for retarded subjects was short (shallow), without story development, and the connections weak. These results showed a correspondence between planning process and artwork characteristics. It was suggested that the method used in this study was effective in analyzing the structure of collage as well as Hakoniwa work.
The self-referent task, which typically asks “Does this word describe you?”, has been assumed to require access to the real self. The present study investigated the influence of other selves, the ideal and social self, on the self-reference effect. In Experiment 1, ideal-, social- and real-self referent conditions resulted in better recall than the semantic condition, but there was no difference in recall among the three self referent conditions. In Experiments 2 and 3, each of the three self-referent tasks was shown to have resulted in unique encoded information. The results as a whole suggest that ideal, social, and real selves are rich, well integrated cognitive structures, and support the argument that associating stimuli with self-knowledge is crucial for the self reference effect.
When we remember or hear the time of a past event, we sometimes say “It has passed only…month”, or “It has already passed…month”. Our subjective elapsed time could be elastic and often different from the objective elapsed time. This difference causes time gap feeling. In this study, we named this feeling FOG (feeling of time gap) and investigated some factors which would cause FOG. For 32 news events, 31 subjects estimated FOG and characteristics of the events (e.g., memory trace, vividness, frequency of recall, affect, etc.). Results have shown that (1) the older, more affective and more flash memories tend to cause FOG, and (2) even if we know the exact time of events, we sometimes feel FOG.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether those who were mildly depressed and those who were not differed in termes of their self referent processing of personal information. Twenty-four undergraduates, 12 mildly depressed and 12 normal controls, performed two types of rating tasks, structural and self referent, on personality adjectives. The adjectives were either related to depression or not. Immediately after the rating tasks, subjects recalled as many adjectives as possible in an incidental memory task. Main results were as follows: (1) The mildly depressed showed longer response latency than the controls in making self-referent ratings, but no difference in latency was found for structural ratings. (2) Both mildly depressed and normal controls recalled more adjectives for the self-referent rating task than the structural one, and recalled more adjectives that were not related to depression than those that were.
When we see a series of moving lights attached to a walker's major joints, we can recognize it as a human body in motion (Bruce & Green, 1990; Johansson, 1973). Moreover, observers can recognize the walker's gender from such a display (Barclay, Cutting, & Kozlowski, 1978; Cutting & Kozlowski, 1977; Cutting, Proffitt, & Kozlowski, 1978). For gender recognition, Cutting and his colleagues suggested that male and female walkers respectively have unique walking styles caused by differences in the position of their center of moment (Cm). However, previous studies of gender recognition used only side views of these point-light walkers. The present study investigated gender recognition by presenting subjects with three kinds of views of the point-light walkers: profile views of rightward movements, approaching movements, and 3/4 profile diagonal movements. Subjects' task was to judge if the walker was male or female. The results showed almost the same judgement accuracy for all directions in male walkers, and the highest accuracy for the approaching movement in female walkers. The subjects tended to judge the presented walkers to be male more frequently than female.
Three hundred and six (306) undergraduates participated in a study that examined abilities in interpersonal relations and interpersonal motivations. Results indicated that: (1) Three interpersonal motivations underlay interpersonal attitudes, namely, other-praise acquisition, other-rejection avoidance, and relationship avoidance. (2) Abilities in interpersonal relations, such as social skills and perceived interpersonal competence, influenced relative strengths among the individual's three interpersonal motivations. High levels of abilities in interpersonal relations lead to stronger motivation to acquire praise by others. In contrast, those with low levels of abilities were motivated to avoid interpersonal relations altogether. Those in-between were motivated to avoid rejection by others.