The present study analyzed people's risk perception regarding driving a car with studded or non-studded winter tires. Subjects were 252 residents of Sapporo, where a recent municipal ordinance prohibited studded tires, allowing only non-studded ones. Questionnaire data were examined concerning (1) the relationship between risk perception and its acceptance, (2) the effect of an inserted message, which was either positive or negative about the use of non-studded tires, and (3) the role of personal involvement, assessed with Personal Involvement Inventory (Zaichkowsky, 1985), regarding winter driving. Results were as follows: (1) The use of non-studded tires was favorably judged because of social benefit, but subjects hesitated to choose them because of a higher perceived possibility of an accident. (2) The inserted message had significant effects on benefit evaluation and perceived accident possibility. The effects were weaker for drivers who had experienced driving a car with studded tires. And (3) personal involvement had a weak correlation with risk judgements of the present study.
Type A-B differences were assessed measuring the P300 component of the event-related brain potentials that could reflect the resource demands of cognitive processings. Type A (9 females) and Type B (3 males and 6 females) students performed concurrently the reaction time (RT) and mental counting tasks. The dual task consisted of four conditions differing in task difficulty. The main results were as follows: Type A subjects performed no better on either task of the dual workload than type B subjects. However, Type A subjects showed higher subjective evaluation with NASA-Task Load Index than Type B subjects for each of the experimental conditions. Moreover, Type A subjects demonstrated greater amplitude of the P300 component for the RT targets all through the conditions than Type B subjects. Type A people's use of many resources in task performance seems to be associated with their hyperresponsivity in autonomic activities during mental workload that is known as a characteristic of Type A person.
Kindergarten children accumulate classmate information through their experience of spending time and doing things together. In the course of preschool lives, a class changes from an aggregation of children to a peer group with own history of interaction and involvement. In such a peer group, whether a child becomes a play-group member is likely to depend not only on his/her social skills, but also on perception based on classmate information, especially whether the other is seen as someone whom the child would like to play with. Relationship between such perception and play-group entry was investigated in a kindergarten class for two years, from entrance as four-year olds to graduation. At the beginning, the two were unrelated, but they became related in later periods. A child was accepted into a play group without trouble when the group members thought he/she was someone they would like to play with. These results supported the hypothesis that other perception based on classmate experience and group history influenced the entry into classroom play groups.
A questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 3000 people who were older than 20, and 993 responded. The questionnaire was designed to measure the respondent's functional evaluations of Japan's political branches (the Diet, the Government, and its administrative agencies), its perceived fairness, his/her emotional and utilitarian commitment to Japan, and the political party he/she supported. Based on the fairness-bond theory model, we hypothesized that positive evaluations of political branches would increase perceived fairness, which in turn leaded to a stronger commitment. Path analysis indicated that the hypothesis was partially supported, and that functional evaluations of political branches had a direct effect on the commitment. It was also found that politically conservative respondents showed more positive evaluations and stronger commitment to Japan than liberal ones, suggesting political attitudes as a moderator variable for the fairness mediation.
To investigate how a smooth curve is processed in the human visual system, we introduce a new grouping principle explaining perceptual organization. Five observers were presented with arrays of band-pass elements, and the detection performance of an undulating path among randomly oriented distractors was measured as a function of the number of path elements and the orientation differences between adjacent path elements. We found that the undulating path was better detected when the number of path elements was large or the orientation differences were small and constant. Based on these results, we propose a model that groups the path elements to be perceived as a contour; local orientation differences are detected by curvature channels, the outputs of these channels are globally pooled with lateral inhibition, and the signals are detected by contour detectors of a threshould device.
The purpose of this paper was to construct a scale that measures the multidimensional attitude toward death in adolescence. Based on preliminary open-ended format survey, a scale of attitude toward death consisting of 67 items was constructed. This scale was administered to 1071 adolescents. Factor analysis with varimax rotation indicated 6 subscales: “fear of death”, “intention to live out own life”, “meaning of death for life”, “underrating of death”, “belief in existence of afterlife”, “choice of death-of-body/death-of-mind”. For these subscales, the coefficients of alpha ranged from .60 to .84, and the coefficients of test-retest reliability with a three-week interval ranged from .68 to .93. The validity of the subscales was investigated through the relations with Templer's Death Anxiety Scale and several developmental indices.
Kaiser's normalization is widely used in factor rotation. In this paper the asymptotic standard errors for rotated parameters are obtained when Kaiser's normalization is employed for the direct oblimin method which is one of the most frequently used oblique rotations. The method of estimating the standard errors is based on the augmented information matrix for parameters with restrictions. A Monte Carlo simulation is carried out to confirm the accuracy of the method. Further, it is shown by artificial data that the values of the standard errors with Kaiser's normalization can be significantly different from those without the normalization. That is, Kaiser's normalization tends to decrease the standard errors of the loadings for the variables with small communalities and to increase those of the correlations among oblique factors.
This study was conducted to investigate subjects' emotional and physiological recovery from tension. Subjects (N=36) were assigned tracking tasks under three conditions: (1) the “Rest” condition in which subjects were not presented a task but asked to stay relaxed; (2) the “Non-performance” condition in which subjects were presented a task but were not required to perform it; (3) the “Performance” condition in which subjects were required to perform the task. We successively recorded eyeblinks, respiration, and heart rate in the pre-task rest period, during the task, and the post-task rest period. Subjects completed a questionnaire to rate their emotions for each period. Results indicated: that eyeblink rate decreased during the task under the non-performance and the performance condition; that respiratory rate and heart rate increased during the task in the performance condition; and that during the post-task period these alterations showed a rapid recovery back to initial levels. As for subjective ratings of emotions, various changes were recorded in addition to recovery: “Disappointment” seemed to last long, “activation” recovered, and “tension” rebounded in the post-task period.
The purpose of this study is to construct and standardize the Five Factor Personality Inventory for Children (FFPC). Fifty items were chosen through two preliminary surveys. Then the 50-item questionnaire was administered to 3 386 primary school children. Based on the results of principal component analysis, 40 items were selected for the FFPC final version. The mean scores, standard deviations, and score distributions of the five-factor scales were computed. One sample of 215 children was tested twice, the interval being 9 weeks. The test-retest correlations ranged between .778 and .854. Scale scores correlated with teacher nominations of the various kinds of personality. The FFPC five-factor scales were shown to have high internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The factorial validity, construct validity, and concurrent validity were also confirmed.
Lesions in the central nucleus or lateral nucleus of the amygdala have been known to interfere with the acquisition of fear conditioning when a sound is used as a conditioned stimulus (CS) . The present study examined whether or not a similar interference would occur with a visual CS. Seven rats with lesions in the central nucleus (AMY-C group), 8 with lesions in the lateral nucleus (AMY-L group), and 16 unoperated control rats were trained using a visual CS (25 W light, 3.7s duration) paired with footshock (1.0 mA, 0.5s). The behavioral index of fear conditioning was a potentiation of startle reflex in the presence of CS. All control rats and AMY-L group showed the potentiation, but AMY-C group did not. These results suggest that the lateral nucleus of the amygdala may not be involved in fear conditioning to a visual CS. It is possible that each modality of CS has a specific pathway to the central nucleus of the amygdala to mediate fear conditioning.