The purpose of this study was to examine self-enhancement tendency of Japanese people when evaluating self and others, and study the relation between the tendency and self-esteem. In Study 1, subjects were asked to evaluate themselves and an average undergraduate of their age in terms of several attributes. Results showed that self-evaluations were more favorable than evaluations of the average undergraduate on such personality attributes as kindness and diligence, which they rated more important, and less favorable on such attributes as appearance, sociability, and financial resource. In addition, subjects with low self-esteem were likely to appraise themselves more negatively than those with high self-esteem, but the two groups showed the same level of self-enhancement when rating themselves on personality attributes. In Study 2, subjects provided percentile rankings of themselves on ten attributes in relation to undergraduates of their age. Results indicated that more than half of the subjects thought that they were above average (better-than-average effect) on such personality attributes as kindness.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the retrieval process and the operation of inferences in systematic-level remindings within a competitive situation. Two experiments were conducted using episodic stories in a modification of the reminding paradigm developed by Wharton, Holyoak, Downing, Lange, and Wickens (1994). Subjects incidentally studied four competitor pairs and four unrelated stories. Then, subjects read other stories and were asked to report any remindings of the studied stories. Memory retrieval was manipulated by presenting subjects with different cue stories. Experiment 1 used both complete cues containing a full set of thematic features and partial cues containing a subset of the initial thematic features. Experiment 2 used both predictive cues presenting a partial thematic structure and partial cues. Complete and predictive cues were related to one of the competitor pairs. Partial cues were related to both of the competitor airs. Results indicated that (1) thematic similarity had an influence on a selection in a retrieval process, and (2) both reflective and predictive inferences operated on the selection during a retrieval process within a competitive situation.
The Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) has been used to investigate links between personality factors and health outcomes. We developed the Japanese version of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BAQ) and assessed validity and reliability of the scale. Study I (N=1 125 college students) used a 45-item rating questionnaire measuring each of four components of aggression: Anger, Hostility, Physical Aggression, and Verbal Aggression. Four aggression subscales emerged clearly from exploratory factor analysis. Study II (N=611 college students) used a 24-item questionnaire and replicated factor structure and factor loadings of Study I. The scales were shown to be highly internally consistent, and stable at appropriate levels over 4-month time period. Normative data, factorial validity, and external evidence of construct, convergent, and discriminant validity for the scales were also presented.
Using rapid serial visual presentation, the present study attempted to show that an attentional control error in integrating the target-definition dimension into the response-definition dimension caused a target intrusion error. It also examined the temporal relation between such attentional control and monitoring. Forty-eight undergraduate and graduate students participated. Two conditions, consistent or varied timing of target presentation, were used to manipulate attentional control in the dimension integration. Each series of stimuli consisted of 7 (consistent timing) or from 7 to 15 (varied timing) pre-target items, followed by target and 8 post-target items. Results showed that timing had an effect on mean probability of report, but not on confidence rating. In addition, average position of reported items came later for consistent than varied timing. These results suggested that average position of reported items was delayed because a portion of attentional resources was allocated to processing of timing. Further, average position of confident items was earlier than that of reported items. It was suggested that monitoring seemed to precede attentional control.
The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences and meanings of crises and to clarify types of the vocational life-cycle the elderly recognized in life review. Subjects were 50 elderly persons at home (male: 39, female: 11, 66-79 years old), who took part in an individually semi-structured interview. Vocational life processes involved school decision making, career decision making, career development, retirement, and final retirement from the work. As a result, more than 50% of the elderly had experienced crises at final school decision making, and with career development in their thirties' and forties'. Moreover, four types of vocational life-cycles were found. They were the appreciating type, the decision making type, the career development type, and the moderate type. The appreciating type was further subcategorized into the consistent type, the modifying type, the overcoming type and the unfolding type. Finally, relationships between these types and attitudes toward retirement were examined. Positive attitudes toward retirement were high in the consistent type, while negative attitudes were high in the modifying type.
The assessment process of contingency between two binary events was examined in the present experiments using university students. Some researchers have obtained a learning curve in judging contingency and have thereby applied an associative model to an explanation of human contingency judgment. Other researchers, however, claimed that the task structure did not adequately reflect the structure of 2×2 contingency tables and failed to obtain learning curves. After having resolved methodological problems of task structure and procedure (Experiments 1 & 2), we demonstrated little evidence of learning curve in judging contingency (Experiment 3). These results were discussed in terms of associative viewpoints and rule-based models.
The purpose of this study was to develop “Employment Anxiety Scale” to understand the structure of anxiety accompanying employment seeking. First, 30 items of anxiety related to employment seeking were collected with an open-ended questionnaire, for which 65 female students answered. In the main study, 465 female undergraduates filled out a questionnaire of the thirty items, a stress scale, and a self-report depression scale. Factor analysis found three factors for the anxiety items: employment seeking activity, vocational aptitude, and workplace. Multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between the mental-health scales and the anxiety. The dependent variables were the stress and depression scores, and the predictors the subscale scores of Employment Anxiety Scale. Results showed that anxiety accompanying employment-seeking activity was highly predictive of the mental-health scores.
The present study examined the effects of pleasantness expressed in verbal messages on their perceived deceptiveness. The hypothesis was that pleasant messages are perceived as less deceptive than neutral or unpleasant ones. To test the hypothesis, three types of messages were constructed: pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant. Sixty-seven university students answered the questionnaire in which they rated, on seven-point semantic differential scales, perceived deceptiveness in one of the three types of messages. The result indicated that the unpleasant messages were perceived as the most deceptive, while the pleasant ones the least deceptive. The computer program “GPOWER” was used in order to obtain appropriate sample size.
Although social cognition research has a history of twenty years, this area is not well recognized in Japan yet. This review focuses on studies on person perception, especially on the organization of person information and knowledge activation in social cognition. The effect of knowledge activation on behavior is also addressed. First, the historical stream of social cognition studies is overviewed. Second, the topics of representations of persons, top-down/bottom-up processes in person perception, and spontaneous trait inferences are discussed. Furthermore, the topics of construct accessibility effect, development of assimilation/contrast effect, activation of goal concepts, and its effect on behavior are examined. Lastly, some arguments on social cognition research are addressed with references to the future.