The present study examined individual differences in psychological and physiological stress responses to the same stressor. In Study 1, psychological stress responses were assessed at three time periods: four weeks before, the day before, and the middle day of the semester-end examination period (N=69). Both stress coping and MPI were assessed once during the study. In Study 2, 15 subjects were exposed to the same psychological stressor in an experiment to measure heart rate. The stressors were memorization of material relevant to the examination (Test 1), and mental calculation irrelevant to the examination (Test 2). Subjects were divided into 2 groups on the basis of their Study 1 psychological stress response scores: the low stress group (LS, N=10) and the high stress group (HS, N=5). The results of Study 1 and Test 1 of Study 2 suggested that there were significant differences between LS and HS in stress responses. These findings were discussed in light of cognitive appraisal and controllability of time. Further studies are needed to clarify the aspect of time span in cognitive appraisal.
We examined the time course of the apparent motion and displacement of the oculogyral illusion (OGI) after cessation of constant rotation (72 deg/s) as a vestibular stimulation. Subjects scaled the apparent motion of a target presented on the objective midline for 120s after vestibular stimulation (Experiment 1) and the apparent displacement of the same target from the subjective midline (Experiment 2). The magnitude of apparent motion simply decreased from the maximum value as a function of time. In contrast, the magnitude of displacement was nearly zero, or localized near the subjective midline, immediately after the vestibular stimulation. Then, it increased rapidly in the direction of the acceleration, and decreased gradually moreover after 20 to 30s. These findings suggest that the apparent motion and displacement in OGI could be controlled by different mechanisms, which have different response characteristics to the same vestibular stimulation.
This study investigated effects of intrastriatal kainic acid administration, which induces selective neuronal cell death in the striatum sparing passing nerve fibers and terminals, on the acquisition of spatial learning in Morris water maze. Rats treated with bilateral kainic acid (0.5-1.0 μg) into the striatum were trained to escape to a hidden platform under the water. Compared with control rats, kainic acid (1.0 μg) -lesioned rats showed significantly longer escape latency in the place navigation, and in the following probe test lower rate of swimming within the quadrant where the platform had been placed. In addition, kainic acid (1.0 μg) -lesioned rats showed longer latency in the cue navigation in which rats were trained to escape to a visible platform above the water. These deficits were caused by their tendency to swim along the wall of pool before approaching the platform and not by their swim difficulty. Results suggest that striatal neurons or neural circuits containing these neurons play an important role in the acquisition of spatial learning task, and the nature of this performance impairment was discussed in terms of both learning and attention deficits.
The purpose of this study was to assess individual differences in attachment representation. They were assessed, not through direct verbal reports, but indirectly as indicated in a projective test. The test required subjects to tell their impressions of pictures, which depicted daily, routine parent-child interactions. A series of pictures were developed for story-making task, which was named PARS (Picture Attachment Related Study). Three hundred and two (302) undergraduate and vocational students were asked to see the pictures, and freely imagine the situation, think what they would feel, and create the further story. They were then to recall their own experiences with their parents, and fill out a questionnaire of how they see their relationship with others. It was found that those who made a trustful PARS story recalled their own attachment experiences in an autonomous way, and had lower distrust in their relationship with others. Thus, results of the projective test were shown to reflect individual personal attachment experiences, and the test be useful.
In order to investigate characteristics of the “structure from motion” in noise, we compared performances of recovering a three-dimensional structure from motion (3D condition) with those of recovering a two-dimensional structure (2D condition). In addition, we adopted a statistical efficiency approach to analyze the results. We conducted two experiments where we presented to observers a pair of three dots corresponding to three apexes of triangles rotating around an axis projected onto the fronto-parallel plane. A gaussian noise was added to the area of each triangle for each stimulus frame. Observers were required to discriminate areas of two triangles perceived with moving dots. Main results were as follows: (a) Significant difference was found between the efficiencies for 3D condition and 2D condition. We obtained about 50% or less recovery (i.e., a ratio of the 3D efficiency to the 2D one) in Experiment 2. (b) When we removed the constraints, the human efficiency and the percent recovery decreased dramatically.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate Japanese anger expression styles and their influence on interpersonal relationships. In the initial study, 239 undergraduates were asked to complete a questionnaire which assessed seven distinct anger expression styles. The results indicated that the participants most often employed three anger expression styles including hyojo-kucho (nonverbal), tohmawashi (implicit), and itsumodori (none). In the second study, 162 undergraduates were asked to watch these three anger expression styles portrayed on videotape. Participants rated the degree to which the actor in the videotape felt angry and their impressions toward male or female actors in either higher, lower, or equal status, same-sex situations. The findings indicated that the effect on interpersonal relationships varied across the three different expression styles. This study has important implications for understanding Japanese anger expression in interpersonal, and perhaps cross-cultural, relationships.
This study examined how people perceive the distributions of opinions about sex roles, in particular, how they saw generational differences in the opinions. Undergraduates and their parents were asked to estimate the opinion distributions in young generation as well as in their parents' generation. They were also asked to indicate their own opinions and the degree of their involvement with the issue. Main results were as follows: First, generation gaps were perceived; the respondents estimated that there would be stronger support for relatively liberal opinions in young generation than in their parents' generation, while the generation gaps were perceived in the reverse direction regarding relatively traditional opinions. Second, although this tendency was found for both sexes, it was more pronounced for female respondents. Third, fathers with higher personal involvement with the issue estimated stronger support for liberal opinions, while mothers with higher personal involvement estimated weaker support. This tendency in mothers was more salient in those who themselves supported relatively liberal opinions.
Two groups of undergraduates were asked to solve anagrams and arithmetic problems. All the anagrams were solvable but part of the arithmetic problems was insolvable. After the preliminary task, one of the two explanations was given; internal attribution participants (Internal group, N=22) were told that their failure was due to their problem-solving ability, while external attribution participants (External group, N=21) were told that they failed because some of the problems had no solution. After the explanations, the groups worked on another set of solvable problems. The test task performance of Internal group was significantly lower than that of External group (p=.05), and it was significantly lower than the group's preliminary task (p<.01). No deterioration effect was found for External group. These results supported the implications of the reformulated learned helplessness theory by Abramson, Seligman, and Teasdale (1978). In addition, relationships between performance and participants' attitude such as attributional style and optimism were examined with measurement before and after the task, but no significant correlation was found.