The purpose of this study was to examine effects of bodily movement and verbal information on memory representation of an action. Whether the subject actually performed the action (SPTs) or he/she saw the experimenter do (EPTs) was bodily movement factor. Whether a verbal description of the sequence was given or not was verbal information factor. The two factors formed four groups in Experiment 1, and 56 subjects participated, using two kinds of memory material as a third factor: instruments and bodily movement. Supplemental analyses were the purpose of Experiment 2, in which 112 subjects in eight groups participated, examining verbal or motor recall and recognition. Results of the two experiments suggested that bodily movement facilitated integration of verbal and motor-action components when verbal information was also present. In addition, it was suggested that bodily movement helped form ‘motor imagery’ as memory representation, which was utilized at generation stage of memory retrieval and verifying stage of motor recognition. With these results, the relationship between processing of verbal component and that of motor-action component was discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between personality traits and autobiographical memory. Ninety-one (91) undergraduates completed an autobiographical memory questionnaire, describing experiences of unpleasant emotional episodes, and then rating their qualities: Vividness, emotionality, influence, and so on. They also completed a number of personality inventories, including the Yatabe-Guilford Personality Inventory and Self-Acceptance Inventory. Results indicated that emotionally stable and high-activity subjects perceived past unpleasant episodes as more positive, although there was no qualitative difference. Compared with emotionally unstable and low-activity subjects, they also had a higher self-acceptance score, and acknowledged and accepted own shortcomings. People with adaptive personality appear to have positive views on many aspects of the self. These findings were interpreted from the self-schema perspective of memory.
Experiment 1 and 2 examined the effect of addition or deletion changes in a picture recognition test. Addition and deletion applied to original pictures were referred to deviation change, and addition to deleted pictures or deletion from added pictures was referred to restoration change. In Experiment 1 (n=40), elaborative detailed information contained in line drawings of scenes was changed whereas one of major features in a single object was changed in Experiment 2 (n=36). In the test phase, participants indicated whether each test picture was changed or not from the picture they had seen in the study phase. Deviation change had a greater effect on detection performance than restoration only in Experiment 2. Additions were easily detected than deletions only in deviation change in Experiment 2. In Experiment 3, 51 participants rated impression of added or deleted pictures used in Experiment 2. Impression of added pictures was significantly different from that of deleted in 3 factors. These results suggest that superiority of additions over deletions might be due to their different impression change.
How do we remember future plans? In this study, three experiments were conducted to examine this issue. Thirty to forty different undergraduate or graduate students participated as subjects in each experiment. In Experiment 1, subjects were asked to memorize plans for a day, assuming that they were of tomorrow in the ‘future’ condition and that they were of yesterday in the ‘past’ condition. The result showed that plans for the morning and the evening were recalled better than plans for the daytime (the U-shape effect), only in the future condition. In Experiment 2, plans were presented without time, so that subjects could not use any specific schema associated with time. In this condition, the U-shape effect disappeared. In Experiment 3, subjects were required to memorize plans for two days, tomorrow and the day after tomorrow. The result showed the U-shape effect for each day, not for two consecutive days. These results lead to the conclusion that some ‘temporal information’ about a day may affect the memory for future plans.
The purpose of this study was to examine the retrieval processes in implicit and explicit memory tests by manipulating study tasks and test types. Ninety-six students wrote down target words embedded in the sentences and generated target words using 2-letter cues embedded in the sentences. Students in one test group were asked to recall the target words using the 2-letter cues and then recognize them from the words recalled. Students in the second group were asked to generate words using the 2-letter cues. Students in the third test group were asked to generate words using the 2-letter cues and then recognize the target words from the words generated. The results showed the generation effects in the cued recall test, but in the other test groups, there were no differences between the writing and the generation tasks. The results of the recognition test also showed the interaction between study task and test type. The results suggest that the targets generated are accessed differently between implicit and explicit memory tests.
Forty-nine undergraduates observed two cars traveling in the same direction on a CRT display for various duration. They then chose the car that they believed had run longer, and gave the reason for their choice. There were three types of tasks. Correct judgment was possible for the first type, by logically applying either of two pieces of knowledge about duration: “duration equals temporal end point minus temporal start point” (Knowledge α) or “duration equals distance divided by speed” (Knowledge β). Knowledge α alone was useful for the second type, while only Knowledge β led to correct judgment for the third. Main results were as follows: (1) Undergraduates were more likely to use Knowledge α than β regardless of the types. (2) None of repeatedly making judgment, thinking about reasons for judgment, or receiving failure feedback was very helpful making participants become aware of necessity of using Knowledge β for the third type. (3) Only some 20% of undergraduates were able to use proper knowledge specifically required for each type.
Department of Educational Psychology, Graduate School of Education, University of Tokyo It has been said for a long time that psychology is very important and useful for nursing. And, due to specialization in medicine and aging of society, the importance and usefulness of psychological knowledge for the nurses have increased even more. However, it has not been made clear what sort of psychological knowledge is useful for nursing process and what ought to be taught in the lectures on psychology in the nursing school. In this paper, 173 student nurses rated the usefulness of 75 major propositions of psychology. The results revealed that especially the areas of motivation, consciousness, physiological psychology, and clinical psychology were recognized as very useful, although all areas of psychology taken up in this research were rated as useful. The results also revealed that these areas could be classified into 5 factors, that is, basic psychology, understanding of human behavior, understanding of mental condition, understanding of matters directly related to medicine, and cognition. It is expected that these results are taken into account so that the lectures on psychology are useful for the nurses.
The avian hippocampus, that locates in the posterior part of dorsomedial telencephalon, is considered to be a mammalian hippocampus homologue. The studies of connection, distribution of transmitters, and development of the avian hippocampus all support the homology. Food storing birds have large capacity of spatial memory and have a big hippocampus in comparison to non-storing species. The food-storing birds do not have good memory in general but have good memory specialized to the spatial tasks. The correlation between the volume of the hippocampus and behavior other than food storing but needs spatial memory is also suggested. The hippocampul damages cause deficits in spatial learning especially those using a maze but do not impair non-spatial learning tasks. These studies suggest that the avian hippocampus share a similar function with the mammalian hippocampus, especially that of rodents.