Using runway training procedure, three experiments examined effects of interrun interval (IRI) shift on serial pattern learning in rats. Series consisted of varying number of 0.045g food pellets given in a goal box of a runway. Groups of rats were trained with 24-10-1-0 or 24-16-10-6-3-1-0 series (Experiment 1), 14-7-3-1-0 series (Experiment 2), and 18-12-6-3-1-0 or 18-7-7-7-1-0 series (Experiment 3), under either short (15-20 s) or long (5-15 min) IRI. In test phases, IRI was shifted from short to long or vice versa. Anticipation of 0 pellet was not disrupted by shortening of IRI, whereas lengthening of IRI eliminated the 0 pellet anticipation of the five- to seven-item monotonic series but did not eliminate that for the four-item series and the nonmonotonic series. These results suggest that rats learn a series with different strategies depending on IRI, pattern length, or structural complexity of a series.
Three experiments investigated the effect of impression formation of a person on the recall and recognition of trait words. The subjects were assigned to one of four groups: Impression, Memory, Impression-Memory, and Incidental groups. Each subject performed an orienting task followed by free recall and recognition tests. In a recall test, false recall of antonyms of targets occurred more often in the Memory group than in the Impression group. There was no difference in the correct recall. In a multiple choice recognition test and a yes-no recognition test, false recognition to antonyms of targets occurred more often in the Memory group than in the Impression group. Hit to targets occurred more often in the Impression group than in the Memory group. These results were interpreted as showing that formation of an impression for a person had different effects for recall and recognition tests. The results were discussed in terms of a relation between encoding and retrieval processes.
A longitudinal study was conducted to test two hypotheses, congruency and hopelessness-mediation, in hopelessness theory of depression. Three cognitive diatheses (attributional style, and inferential styles for consequences as well as the self), symptoms of depression, and hopelessness were measured in a survey of 279 men and women. About three months later, symptoms and hopelessness were measured again, along with negative life events in the interim. Some support was obtained for congruency hypothesis. Women with depressogenic attributional style in interpersonal domain became depressed when they experienced negative events in the domain, while men with depressogenic attributional style in achievement domain similarly became depressed. However, no comparable effect was found for the other diatheses: inferential styles. Hopelessness-mediation hypothesis was partly supported in interpersonal domain.
To examine the relationships between low-grade chronic depression, pain and personality traits among community-dwelling persons with traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI), 111 male and 11 female TSCI persons were administered questionnaires including Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) and measures of pain and other mental health items, and were followed-up two years later. Nineteen persons (15%) meeting the criteria for low-grade chronic depression (both SDS scores≥48) were identified, while 30% of the sample population consistently showed normal mood (both SDS scores≤41). Both disabling pain and B type (emotionally labile, socially maladjusted, and extraverted personality characteristic) associated with lower IQ (90 and less) were significantly related to high SDS scores. However, age, sex, time-since-injury, levels of injury and marital status had no relationship with depression.
This study examined the effect of the changes in facial expressions in different parts of the face on emotion recognition. Fiftytwo university students participated in the study. Seven emotions were selected as being the most suitable for categorization and expression: namely, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, sadness, happiness, and neutrality. Picture of these emotions were used to create stimulus materials, composed facial expressions were created by combining the upper and the lower parts of the pictures expressing different emotions. The participants were asked to categorize the type of emotion represented by each picture. The results showed that the upper area of the face was more often associated with anger, fear, surprise, and sadness. On the contrary, the lower area was more often associated with disgust and happiness. There were no significant differences between parts of the face associated with neutral emotions. Based on these results, we conclude that affected areas of the face differed as a function of emotion being experienced. Finally, the relationship of our results with Yamada's model (1993) was discussed.
This study examined the determinants of adults' sketch-map orientation in terms of adoption of Egocentric and Conventional Systems of Reference (ESR and CSR) proposed by Sholl and Egeth (1980). If an ESR adoption in sketch-map drawing depends on a tuning activity of ‘orienting schemata’ (Sholl, 1987), subjects are expected to comprehend their own body direction accurately at the current position. To test this hypothesis, subjects were asked to judge the direction to the library entrance relative to their body direction at the current position. Subjects were asked to judge the direcion to the north, to confirm that those who adopted CSR in sketch-map drawing regard the top of the sketch-map as north. In addition, whether the frequency of ESR adoption increases by telling subjects to draw the current position first, or not was examined. Results indicated a significant increase in ESR adoption. Subjects who adopted ESR performed well in judging the direction to the library entrance. On the other hand, subjects who adopted CSR poorly performed in judging the direction to the north.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the processes underlying spatial orientation in 3-year-old children. After the subjects had seen the experimenter hide an object in one of the two hiding locations on a turntable, they were asked to indicate the location of the object under three conditions: (a) only the table is rotated up to 180° by 45° steps, (b) only the subject is moved to an opposite side by 45° steps, and (c) both the table and the subject were moved simultaneously up to 180° by 45° steps. The results showed that the discrepancy between the locations subjects indicated and the correct locations increased with the degree of rotation in all conditions although there were no significant differences among the conditions. Some of the individual patterns, however, indicated abrupt increases of the discrepancy. These findings suggest that the spatial orientation consists of perceptual and representational processes.
Two studies were conducted to compile a list of social support gaining tactics. Support of three types (tangible, mental, and informational) from four sources (parents, professors, close friends/boy girlfriends/siblings, and friends) was considered. In Study 1, 25 Taiwanese college students were interviewed, and 151 students filled out an open-ended questionnaire. They were asked, for each type and source, to list the kinds of tactics they had used or they would use when they needed social support, and 33 items were collected. In Study 2, factor analysis found seven factors for them: passionate appeal, entreaty, roundabout appeal, other exploitation, reward, reason appeal, and threat.
This study aimed at developing a self report instrument of general mood states which was brief and easy to administer for Japanese respondents. Four studies were conducted. In Study 1, we administered some existing mood questionnaires in order to select appropriate items from them. Factor analysis using oblique roration yielded eight factors. Following Study 2 and 3, we developed an instrument called the General Affect Scales with three 8-item subscales: positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), and calmness (CA). The reliability and the validity of each scale were then investigated. It was shown that the subscales except the CA are highly internally consistent and factorially valid. Finally, these subscales were compared with other mood scales in Study 4.