The pattern of the mood-congruent effect in an autobiographical memory recall task was investigated. Each subject was randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: positive mood, negative mood (induced with music), and control groups (no specific mood). Subjects were then presented with a word at a time from a list of trait words, which were pleasant or unpleasant. They decided whether they could recall any of their autobiographical memories related to the word, and responded with “yes” or “no” buttons as rapidly and accurately as possible. After the task, they were given five minutes for an incidental free recall test. Results indicated that the mood-congruent effect was found regardless of whether there was an autobiographical memory related to the word or not in both positive and negative mood states. The effect of moods on self-relevant information processing was discussed.
To investigate whether internal object representations in the brain are 2D or 3D, we measured discrimination thresholds and calculated statistical efficiencies in the object recognition task based on the ideal observer analysis. Stimulus images were created by orthographic projection of 3D wire-frame objects on a fronto-parallel plane. The discrimination task with the wire-frame stimuli was performed in the monocular (Experiment 1) and the binocular (Experiment 2) conditions. The results indicate that the subjects' statistical efficiencies relative to the 2D ideal observer exceeded 100%, suggesting that the internal object representations should be 3D. In addition, the results revealed that the object type with high-level symmetry led to better discrimination in both experiments. Furthermore, the interaction between 3D cue values and the object regularity was suggested to cause the viewpoint dependency.
We compared observers' statistical efficiencies of depth discrimination for two stereoscopic patterns: an overlapped pattern where two planes are overlapped at different depths, and a step-edge pattern where two planes are arranged side by side. In both patterns, elements in one plane were differentiated from those in the other plane by color (red vs. green) or orientation (45 deg vs. -45 deg). In the experiment, subjects were required to determine which plane was in front when Gaussian disparity noise was added to both of the elements' disparity values. The results showed that efficiencies were the same level for both patterns when the elements were differentiated by color. On the other hand, efficiencies were lower for the overlapped pattern than the step-edge pattern when the elements were differentiated by orientation regardless of the set size of elements. The patterns which we used were so sparse that the differences between the color and orientation conditions should arise from the process after matching.
This study investigated how the availability of external memory aids affects the cognitive processes in prospective memory tasks. Forty-eight subjects were instructed to memorize to-be-executed scripts and to-be-recalled scripts, and then perform the former scripts three minutes after the start of a recognition test. Before the recognition test, subjects in the timer and memo instruction conditions were informed they could utilize a timer and a memo, respectively. The results indicated that in the “no instruction” condition, recognition latencies were shorter for words from the to-be-executed scripts than for words from the to-be-recalled scripts (intention superiority effect). This did not occur in either the timer or memo instruction conditions. Moreover, the time-monitoring frequency was decreased only in the timer instruction condition. The results suggest that the external memory aids affect the rehearsal and monitoring processes in prospective memory tasks.
This study investigated the effect of achievement motive on goal orientation, and that of goal orientation on intrinsic interest in learning and academic achievement, based on the model proposed by Elliot and Church (1997). A sample of 222 fifth and sixth grade students of an elementary school, and another of 307 seventh, eighth and ninth grade students of a junior high school participated in the study. The approach-avoidance framework of Elliot and Harackiewicz (1996) was used to classify goal orientations. With multiple-sample structural equation modeling, the paths in two causal models, one for each of the elementary and junior high school samples, were compared. A path was found from hope for success to mastery orientation, from both hope for success and fear of failure to performance-approach orientation, and from fear of failure to performance-avoidance orientation. Mastery and performance-approach orientations each had a positive effect on intrinsic interest in learning. For elementary school children, performance-approach orientation enhanced academic achievement, and for junior high school students, mastery orientation mainly facilitated it. Performance-avoidance orientation had a negative effect on both intrinsic interest and academic achievement.
It has previously been reported that subjects show difficulties in recognizing faces which are either inverted or in photographic negative. This study examined whether inversion and negation would disrupt the same aspects of face recognition processes in a same-different decision task for simultaneously presented faces. In a “different” condition, two faces were subtlely changed either in component information (eye size) or configural information (placement of inner features). The results revealed that negation equally disrupted component and configural processings, whereas inversion selectively disrupted configural processing more than component processing. Thus, the negation effect, which has been accounted for in terms of edge vs. surface processing, cannot be accounted for in terms of component vs. configural processing. It is concluded that inversion and negation selectively disrupt different aspects of cognitive processes underlying face recognition.
The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of preschool children to reconcile inconsistent cues of emotion. Twenty four 4- and twenty 6-year-old children, half of them were boys and half girls, were shown a series of pictures, in which facial and situational cues were inconsistent. They were asked to construct episodes for the pictures, by integrating inconsistent events. It was found that the ability to integrate inconsistent cues increased with age. Of the three possible types of episodic explanations: situational, characteristic, and mental, only the number of mental episodic explanations increased with age. No age difference was found for situational or characteristic episodes. These results were discussed in relation to studies on children's ability of affective perspective taking.
This study investigated the relationship between self-consciousness and conforming behavior, with conformity motives and task-interest as their moderator variables. One hundred fifty-six (156) participants were asked to imagine themselves in a hypothetical conforming situation, and estimate the probability of their conforming behavior and various conformity motives behind it, as well as their interest in the task. They also completed Self-Consciousness Scale. Among low task-interest participants, those high on private self-consciousness conformed more than the low if either motive for avoidance of isolation or motive for fairness was high, while those high on public self-consciousness conformed more than the low if motive for avoidance of isolation was high. Among high task-interest participants, those high on private self-consciousness conformed less than the low, while those high on public self-consciousness conformed more than the low if motive for fairness was high. The relationship between conformity motives and standards of behavior was discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction. Mascaro and Graves (1973) argued that a contrast effect on perception of similarity mediated interpersonal attraction. In the present experiment, it was hypothesized that topic familiarity moderated the effects of a background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction. One hundred twenty-two (122) female students were randomly assigned to four groups, formed by two levels of topic familiarity and two levels of similarity for the background stimulus person. They saw the attitudes of two stimulus persons together, and were asked to rate perceived similarity and interpersonal attraction. Results showed that in familiar topic condition, contrast effect was not found for attitude similarity judgement, but it was found for interpersonal attraction. The finding suggested that presence of a background stimulus person immediately led to the contrast effect on interpersonal attraction.
This study examined whether elicitation of joy or relaxation would reduce intensity of formerly induced sadness by using imagery tasks. Participants (N=10) imaged a series of four sad scenes successively in the preliminary experiment. Dependent variables were subjective emotional ratings, heart rate, and facial electromyography of the corrugator and the zygomatic muscles. The result indicated that the sadness-imageries increased heart rate, corrugator activity, and zygomatic activity, as well as sad feeling. The procedure of the main experiment (N=19) was almost the same as that of the preliminary experiment except that the sadness-imageries were followed by one of the 3 emotional imageries, that is, relaxation, neutrality, and joy. The result indicated that the relaxation-imagery marginally significantly decreased the heart rate that had been increased by the sadness-imageries. The joy-imagery reduced sad feeling but increased the zygomatic activity more than the relaxation-imagery. No effect was found on the heart rate. These results suggested that positive emotions alleviate sadness, and that joy and relaxation alleviate different aspects of sadness.