We hypothesized that one of the reasons that not a few Japanese are interested in lay personality theories of ABO blood-typing and similar unsupported beliefs on human nature, was unsatisfied needs of having clear collective and personal identities. To test the hypothesis, we asked 149 married women, 34 to 62 years of age, to describe themselves as in self introduction to strangers, and then separately indicate the degree of interest in lay personality theories. We then counted the number of references to personal/private aspects (an index of personal identity) and the number to social groups whose membership was known to be exclusive and limited (an index of collective one). Results showed that those who were high on both indices were less interested in lay theories than those low on one or both of personal and collective indices.
The effects of long-term husband absence on wives' stress reaction and child-care anxiety were examined in a cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Women whose husband was transferred together with his family (taido-funin, N=180) and those without his (tanshin-funin, N=229) completed a questionnaire of their own stress reaction and child-care anxiety. Five years later, they were again asked to complete the same questionnaire. Of those who participated in the second survey, husbands of 25 wives were still away as tanshin-funin, those of 51 returned and rejoined his family, and 37 families remained as taido-funin. Results of ANOVAs were as follows: Women whose husband continued tanshin-funin reported more stress reaction than those whose husband returned. Expectation of long-term absence was more harmful than that of brief absence. Expectation of long-term absence was more harmful than actual long-term absence. Expectation as well as actual experience of long-term absence had worse effects on wives who had older children, e.g., of college age, than those with younger ones. Finally, no effect of prolonged husband absence was found on child-care anxiety.
In order to measure thematic tendencies of paranoid ideation in non-clinical samples, Delusional Ideation Checklist (DICL) was developed. A wide range of items indicating themes of delusion were collected. From the results of factor analysis on the data of 308 college students, eight scales were constructed. They were: alienation, belittlement, persecution, other-harming, guardedness, self-conceit, favoredness, and other-manipulation. These scales could be classified in terms of emotion: positive versus negative, and direction: self versus others, and could deal with themes of paranoid ideation in a comprehensive and systematic way. Alpha coefficients of the scales were between .66 and .87, and test-retest reliability between .49 and .71. To examine content validity, ten psychiatrists were asked to rate diagnostic importance for each scale item. Six scales were rated as significantly more important in the diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia than that of anxiety neurosis. Current data revealed that ordinary students experienced delusional ideation more frequently than psychiatrists would expect.
The previous research which investigated the effect of verbal encoding on the memory of visual information has yielded contradictory results: facilitation and inhibition of performance by verbal encoding. However, it has not been elucidated why and how these conflicting results were brought about. The main purpose of this study is to show that verbal encoding not only facilitates but also impairs performance by taking task demand and characteristics of visual representations into account. Another purpose is to investigate how verbal encoding would influence the memory of color information, which is irrelevant for the memory task. In Experiment 1, the results showed that verbal encoding could have two opposite effects in the same task. In Experiment 2, the results showed that the effect of verbal encoding on the memory of color would differ from that on the memory of the shapes of pictures.
We conducted three experiments in order to investigate the effect of stimulus orientation on negative priming (NP). Using the picture naming task, Murray (1995) reported the occurrence of semantic NP by rotated distractors. As the rotation of picture stimuli seems to have little effect to reduce distracter interference, in the present study we used the character (katakana) identification task to ensure the effect of stimulus rotation. When the distractors were rotated (180°), no NP was observed whether the targets were upright (Experiment 1) or rotated (Experiment 2). On the other hand, significant NP was observed when the distractors were upright and the targets were rotated (Experiment 3). These results suggest that the inhibitory mechanism of attention may not operate on the rotated distractor characters.
A study was conducted examine whether the asymmetric confusability effect was generalized to an array of face photographs, and furthermore to investigate how the impression of faces affected the recognition of addition and deletion of the faces. In a preliminary investigation, 27 subjects rated the impression of 83 face photographs, and the photographs to be used in the present study were chosen on the basis of the impression scores. In the study, 40 subjects saw 14 photographs consisted of three or four faces and took a recognition test of unchanged photographs and changed photographs with a specific face added or deleted. The data showed that (a) the addition superiority was not found in the recognition of changes in face arrays; (b) the impression of faces differentially affected the recognition of addition and deletion changes in face arrays. These results suggest that the mechanism underlying the recognition of the deletion of a face may be different from that of addition.
The purpose of this study was to provide experimental evidence for orientational metaphors based on the UP-DOWN image schema. Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of the image schema on the picture-word comparison tasks. In the experiments, subjects were required to judge if the location of kanji-target matched the word printed at the center of a reference square. Under the condition in which the location and the metaphorical orientation of the kanji-target disagree, it took longer time for judgment. These results are interpreted in terms of accessibility and availability of the image schema.
Traditionally, the issue of the relationship between language and thought has been framed as the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, in which crosslinguistic-crosscultural universality or diversity of thought has been the center of the debate. The long-lasting debate revolving around the hypothesis has not yielded a clear, satisfactory conclusion. This unsatisfactory result seems to be largely attributed to the fact that (a) the term “thought” has been so vaguely defined, and that (b) the interpretation of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis itself has been quite diverse among researchers. In this paper, I argue that the question we should ask is not whether thought is universal or different across different language groups. Instead, we should ask more specific (and realistic) questions, taking it for granted that our thought is constrained by innate language-independent cognitive faculties but at the same time a large part of our thought is shaped by language. The questions we should ask are: in what cognitive domains (e.g., spatial cognition, ontological knowledge, categorization of natural objects etc.), at what specific level (e.g., perception, memory, knowledge representation, on-line information processing) and in what degree (a) our thought is influenced by the specific structure of the given language (or is immune to it) and (b) our thought is shaped by language learning (or constrained by language-independent innate cognitive structure). In order to reevaluate the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis in this new perspective, I reviewed literature mainly focusing on three distinctive cognitive domains: ontological knowledge with respect to individuation, categorization of natural objects, and spatial cognition.