This study investigated the effects of anger evoked by earlier provocation on cognition, emotion, and aggressive behavior after being exposed to media violence. Sixty male undergraduates participated in the experiment. Before viewing one of three videos (either highly violent, violent with high entertainment, or nonviolent), half of the subjects were provoked by a confederate posing as another subject. Subjects' heart rates and eyeblink rates were recorded while viewing the video. After viewing the video, subjects described their thoughts that occurred while watching the video and rated their affective reactions toward the video. Finally, subjects' agressive behavior toward the confederate was measured. Results of covariance structure analysis suggested that (a) anger evoked by provocation and high level of violence in videos additively elicited negative cognition and affect, which further facilitated aggressive behavior, and (b) high level of entertainment in videos elicited positive cognition and affect, which alleviated negative cognition and affect.
The purpose of this study was to examine a causal model leading to the tendency of women's junior college students to delay vocational decisions. The model assumes that Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy (CDMSE) determines vocational motives, which in turn affect the tendency. A questionnaire was administered to 431, 199 first-year and 232 second-year, women's junior college students. CDMSE was measured with self-efficacy for self-appraisal and occupational information-gathering, and vocational motives were self-improvement, interpersonal, and status motives. Results showed that self-efficacy for self-appraisal influenced self-improvement motive for both first-year and second-year students. Self-improvement motive and the self-efficacy then influenced vocational indecision among second-year students. Self-efficacy for information-gathering influenced vocational indecision among first-year students. These findings suggest that college vocational guidance should take self-efficacy and vocational motives into account.
Some studies have indicated that the brainstorming in a computer-mediated meeting can be effective. Accordingly, an experiment was conducted to investigate relative effectiveness of three electronic brainstorming systems, compared with a control, and find cognitive variables that mediated its effectiveness. One hundred undergraduate women, in groups of four, participated in the experiment. The number and quality of unique ideas generated by electronic brainstorming groups of three presentation systems: random, sequential, and sequence-emphasized, were compared with those of a nominal group. Results indicated that the three brainstorming groups were higher than the control, in terms of originality of generated ideas. Also, the possibility was suggested that pleasure in task performance mediated the originality effect of electronic brainstorming.
Social contract theory (Cosmides, 1989) posits that the human mind was equipped with inference faculty specialized for cheater detection. Cosmides (1989) conducted a series of experiments employing the Wason selection task to demonstrate that her social contract theory could account for the content effects reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility that the results were due to experimental artifacts. In the current experiment, the subject was given two versions of the Wason task that contained no social exchange context, but included an instruction implying him/her to look for something, together with the cassava root and the abstract versions used by Cosmides (1989). Results showed that the two versions with no social exchange context produced the same response pattern observed in the original study. It may be concluded that the subject's perception of the rule as a social contract was not necessary to obtain the original results, and that an instruction implying that he/she should look for something was sufficient.
We examined the effects of figural complexity and target-distracter similarity on decay rate in short-term visual memory (STVM) for closed contours. The subject's task was to compare two stimuli presented at different points in time. Experiment 1 showed that even a simple pattern with 6 convex parts cannot be handled in STVM for several seconds without loss. Experiments 1 and 2 indicated that decay rate tends to be higher for patterns with higher complexity and for patterns with higher target-distracter similarity regardless of pattern complexity. These results are interpreted that the value of each convex part represented in STVM is an independent Gaussian random variable and that memory noise increases with retention intervals for each convex part separately. Furthermore, they suggest that memory for local features in STVM decays faster. Yet visual rehearsal appears to operate effectively on memorizing even complex patterns. It is concluded that visually presented patterns can be retained in STVM with relatively high fidelity for prolonged periods of time, although some loss of precision occurs inevitably.
The present study investigated the effects of the spatial information for cognitive distance in an architectural space. One hundred undergraduate students participated in the experiment, and they were divided into two groups. The control group (CG) was given the pictures of both ends of the routes, and the experimental group (EG) was given some scenes of the routes in addition to the ends. The subjects have used the building used for the experiment for more than 2 years, and they estimated each walk of the 10 routes in the building. Each of those routes (50m-144m) is longer than the standard route (34m). Before estimating the distance, the pictures were given on display through World Wide Web with questionnaires. The ratio method was used to obtain the cognitive distance data. As a result, the cognitive distance data of both groups showed similar distribution, and the cognitive distance data of EG were longer than those of CG in all routes. However, the effects of the number of the pictures were varied. These results suggested that not only the amount of the spatial information (i.e., chair, pillar, garbage box) but also the subjects' cognitive processing of the information affected the cognitive distance.
The main purposes of this study were to examine young children's ability to infer disgust in another person elicited by someone else's immoral action, and their ability to properly use the person's reactions in order to infer his/her emotion. Stories with pictures were used, and these abilities were compared with those for anger, which was also elicited by someone else's immoral action. Children of five and six years old, 52 and 54 respectively, and 251 undergraduates participated in the study. Main results were as follows: (a) children were adequately able to infer disgust in another person from a story showing a situation with an immoral action, although not as well as undergraduates; (b) children used the person's reaction toward the immoral action for inferring disgust as well as undergraduates did; and (c) inferring disgust for them seemed to be as easy as inferring anger.
The present study was conducted to examine the relationship between flexibility of coping to interpersonal stress and mental health as represented by scores on a self-report depression scale (CES-D) in 87 college students. Subjects were first required to complete the Interpersonal Stress-Coping Inventory (ISI) to identify each subject's coping type (ISIpre). They were then asked to complete ISI again (ISIpost) assuming that the coping strategy they adopted in ISlpre did not work well. The results of ISIpre and ISIpost were then compared and the flexibility of coping to stress of each individual was analyzed in terms of his/her tendencies: (a) to abandon the type they adopted in ISIpre (Level A flexibility); and (b) to adopt a new coping type (Level B flexibility). Flexible copers in both Levels A and B were shown to be significantly less depressive as represented by scores in CES-D, those fulfilling both flexibility criteria being the least depressive. The results were discussed with reference to mental health and to functional fixedness/recentering in problem solving.
Many studies have claimed that faces are more holistically recognized than other objects. It is unclear, however, whether some faces are more holistically recognized than other faces. This study examined whether typical faces are more holistically recognized than distinctive faces. In order to measure the degree of holistic processing, I used an alignment effect, which is a kind of interference effect on the part processing by the holistic processing. The alignment effect was measured as performance difference between aligned and non-aligned presentation conditions. The size of the alignment effects reflects the degree of the holistic processing. The results showed that the typical and distinctive faces showed an equal size of the alignment effects. These results suggested that the typical faces were not more holistically recognized than the distinctive faces. The implication of this results for face recognition research was discussed.