In this study, the significance of extracurricular activities in the life of junior high school students was examined. Seventh and eighth graders participated in a two-stage questionnaire survey, administered in May and October. Based on developmental stage-environment fit theory (Eccles, Wigfield, & Schiefele, 1998), how well extracurricular activity settings fit needs of the students was analyzed. In support of the theory's hypothesis, results indicated that whether an extracurricular activity satisfied the student's developmental needs affected his/her sense of fulfillment and satisfaction in school life. In addition, the effect of seventh graders' commitment to extracurricular activities on their satisfaction of school life was stronger in October than in May. The findings suggested that for students who felt uneasy in class for whatever reasons, extracurricular activities provided an opportunity for relief.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of negative-sentence suggestions on various behavior. From the standpoint of the logic of negation, Miyashita (1998a, 1999) investigated the characteristics of feelings, sensations, and behavior. The results suggested that negative-sentence suggestions had more affirmative effects on mono-dimensional behavior than on mufti-dimensional behavior. The present study examined this hypothesis. A total of 36 subjects (18 males, 18 females, mean age=23.22, SD=3.41) participated in the experiment. Subjects were given suggestions related to either mono-dimensional behavior or mufti-dimensional behavior in negativesentence form. An example of a suggestion related to mono-dimensional behavior would be “Your body does not move backwards”, while an example for mufti-dimensional behavior would be “Your body does not move.” Body sway was then measured. Results showed that negative-sentence suggestions had more affirmative effects on mono-dimensional behavior than on mufti-dimensional behavior. The hypothesis proposed by previous studies was supported.
The present study examined how changes would occur in sex-role attitudes of female high school students. Six hundred (600) randomly sampled female high school students from a metropolitan area completed a questionnaire. Partial Order Scalogram Analysis (POSA) was conducted for three variables: complaint against sex discrimination, interest in women's independence, and attitude toward women's achievement in the public arena. POSA found two separate change routes for sex-role attitudes. In the first, the complaint process, increasing complaint against sex discrimination led to positive attitude toward women's achievement in the public arena, which in turn to heightened interest in women's independence. For the second, the interest process, heightened interest in women's independence was followed by positive attitude toward women's achievement, and then by more complaint against sex discrimination. Results also suggested not only that the complaint process was facilitated by external factors like discrimination, and that the interest process by increasing interest in self. But students in the last stage of both processes experience sex-role conflict.
This study examined the existence of functional hemispheric asymmetry in visual sustained attention in a dual-task setting. In the experiments, a circular arrangement of Gabor patches (GPs) was successively presented in the periphery during a 40-min vigil. The primary task was successive discrimination of digit type (Experiment 1) or tone frequency (Experiment 2). The secondary task was oddball orientation detection, requiring subjects to determine whether all of GPs were same or whether there was an odd one in the upper left, upper right, lower left, or lower right visual fields. Overall, results indicated that the perceptual sensitivity (A′) for the detection task was higher in the left visual field than in the right visual field. Visual field differences in the vigilance decrement (the decline in A′ over time) were observed when the primary task involved auditory discrimination. The implications for the functional lateral asymmetry in human sustained attention are discussed.
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the relation between resistance to change and preference. Four pigeons responded in concurrent chained schedules in which variable-interval (VI) 60-s schedules were arranged in the initial link. In Experiment 1, VI and fixed-interval (FI) schedules of equal mean reinforcement rates were arranged in the teminal link. Response rates were higher in the initial link leading to VI terminal link. Under the prefeeding test, the initial-link response rates leading to VI terminal link were more resistant to change than were those leading to FI terminal link, but under the extinction test there were no consistent differences between the two initial-link response rates. In Experiment 2, FI value of the terminal link was manipulated so that pigeons maintained approximately equal responding in the initial link. The two initial-link response rates showed equal resistance to change under the prefeeding and extinction tests. Thus, the data suggest that although the use of extinction as a manipulation to study resistance to change is questioned, resistance to change and preference are different measures of a single object.
The present study examined whether the self-reference effect occurred when memory retrieval was automatic. The process-dissociation procedure (e.g., Jacoby, 1991; Toth, Reingold, & lacoby, 1994) was used to separate automatic and intentional, i.e., consciously controlled, components of memory in a word-stem completion task. In the learning phase, subjects were asked to rate trait words in one of the three ways of encoding: self reference, semantic, and physical. Immediately after the phase, they performed an arithmetic problem for three minutes, and then were given the surprise word-stem recall task under an inclusion and exclusion performance conditions. Estimates derived from a process dissociation procedure showed the self-reference effect was found only in intentional memory, and not in automatic memory. Results therefore suggested that the self-reference effect to occur, intentional use of memory was necessary.
A PC's clock, which has a precision in error of ±1 μs, was developed. However, the level of precision in a psychological experiment depends on the keyboard characteristic, if we use it. The author measured reaction time (RT) and interresponse time (IRT) using the PC's clock and, in parallel, measured true time with an external universal counter. Next, the time difference between the PC's time count and the true time value was analyzed. When using a keyboard as a reaction panel, both a constant time delay and an error variance were found in measuring the RT. The frequency distribution of this difference in time value had a uniform distribution with the width of 6ms. In the IRT time measurement, no time delay was found, and the frequency distribution of the difference in time value was triangular. The range of the triangle distribution was twice as large as that of the uniform distribution. We can estimate the standard deviations of both distributions through the relation of “σ/R=k” if we get a range of uniform distribution.
Research on source memory in the source monitoring paradigm was reviewed and discussed. The author analyzed three factors contributing to the current upsurge of source memory research: (a) a basic theoretical framework and a basic experimental paradigm for source monitoring were established by Johnson and her collaborators, (b) source monitoring tasks were a more sensitive measure than recall and recognition tasks to assess one's explicit memory among different populations, and (c) the source monitoring paradigm is so flexible and versatile to design a variety of experiments. Further studies are necessary for the paradigm to find a better way of analyzing data and to verify its premises. Regardless of these problems, however, the author predicted a further explosion of source memory research in the paradigm because it would give us a hint of an underlying mechanism of how memory is processed.