The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not early indications of lateraiization could be found in the perinatal period. The position in the fetal period and spontaneous head-turning soon after birth of one hundred and twenty-two subjects were measured. These subjects' hand activities (preference and manipulation) in infancy were later investigated through a questionnaire given to their parents. Results showed that the position in the fetal period and head-turning soon after birth were related to the functional asymmetries of hand activity in infancy. In addition, the results on the hand activity in infancy suggested that the developmental process of manipulation was different from that of hand preference with respect to functional lateraiization.
This study examined the differences between interpersonal relationship of same-sex old friends (OF) and that of new friends (NF). It also investigated the effects of physical distance with an old friend and gender on the friendship. Respondents were 208 undergraduates, 86 men and 122 women, who chose one of most intimate person each from same-sex friends they had made before and after they entered a university, and answered questions to describe their relationship. Results showed that relationship satisfaction and tired feeling were higher for OF than NF. Spending time together and talking over telephone were more frequent for NF than OF, but for each occasion together or over telephone, OF spent longer time than NF. OF expected more self-disclosure between them than NF. Gender differences in friendship expectation were similar to previous findings (Wada, 1993, 1996). Furthermore, gender and physical distance both influenced the frequencies of OF spending time together and over telephone. These findings are discussed in terms of gender differences in friendship.
Previous research has found that Japanese people make relatively critical appraisals of themselves while their appraisals of others are relatively flattering. In order to find the conditions under which these two evaluation biases occur, 144 Japanese undergraduates were first asked to list ten attributes of theirs and then to rate the desirability of possessing each of them (self judgment). Next, someone else in the same class rated the desirability of each (other judgment). Subsequently, all the attributes generated in the study were shown to a separate group of students, who rated general desirability of possessing each of the attributes (consensual judgment). Results showed that relative to consensual judgment, self-judgment was lower (self-criticism), but other judgment was no different for those attributes that were consensually negative. For those consensually positive, however, self judgment was no different from the consensual, but other judgment was higher (other-enhancement). Based on these findings, it was suggested that Japanese self-criticism operated in a relational self-improvement process whereby individuals sought to find and correct their shortcomings so as to meet socially shared standards of excellence.
We examined the effect of relation between interferences from distractor and inhibitory mechanism on the occurrence of negative priming, by using a matching paradigm. The ease of perceptual target selection was determined by magnitudes of interference. Stereoscopic depth was used to manipulate the relative position of a target, a distractor and a standard figure. When the ease of perceptual target selection was manipulated by separation of the target from the distractor in depth, positive priming occurred. However, the ease of target selection turned out to be unnecessary in the occurrence of priming effects. When the distractor and the standard figure were displayed at the same depth plane, where the distractor was supposed to interfere with the encoding of a standard figure, negative priming occurred consistently regardless of the ease of perceptual target selection. This study suggests that inhibitory mechanism contributes to the suppression of inappropriate processes by distractor, and inhibitory mechanism actively keeps distractors from interfering with standard figures.
The purpose of this study was to propose an exploratory positioning analysis method based on a three-mode multivariate statistical model for analyzing semantic differential (SD) data. This new method can be easily implemented by using a structural equation modeling (SEM) program such as LISREL and CALIS, because the mean structure and covariance structure of this method are expressed as submodels of SEM. Two necessary conditions for checking identifiability of this model are shown. It is also shown that this model is scale equivariant for SD data.
It has been argued whether the facial expression is recognized categorically or dimensionally. We investigated this issue using three sets of morphed photographic facial images (happiness to anger, surprise, and sadness). Our interest is whether the experimental data of categorical perception can be explained by the dimensional point of view. Experiment 1 examined the facial stimuli generated by FACS. In Experiment 2, subjects were asked to discriminate some pairs of faces and to categorize the emotion shown one at a time. The discrimination accuracy between categories was better than that within each category. In Experiment 3, subjects were asked to rate those stimuli following the semantic differential technique. Then we examined the relationship between the discrimination accuracy obtained in Experiment 2 and the semantic distances obtained in Experiment 3, defined by Euclidean distances between pairs of stimuli in the factor space that was constituted two factors interpreted as “pleasantness” and “activities”. Discrimination accuracy within each category increased as a function of the semantic distances, whereas discrimination accuracy between categories remained high irrespective of the different semantic distances.
History texts for elementary school children have unique discourse structures that involve variety of information and style. This study investigated the effects of signals that relate the main text with corresponding information in the margins on memory and comprehension of the text. One hundred thirty-five undergraduate students were assigned to read the text being divided into two groups: texts with signals, and texts without signals. The text with signals contained four signals, for example, “look at the picture above”. After reading the text, subjects recalled the text content (written information only) and took a comprehension test. The result of recall task suggested that students who read the text with signals remembered more information in the margins than those who read the text without signals. In the comprehension test, those in the former group indicated integrated comprehension of the two parts of the text.
The authors proposed “mental image manipulation of expression” as processing strategy for faces, and investigated whether this strategy facilitates memory for faces or not. In the Experiment, four groups of subjects were assigned to a combination of a task (mental image manipulation of expression or distinctive feature scan) and a retention interval (short-term latency or long-term latency). Each task was followed by an unexpected yes-no recognition test in which identical pictures of the target faces or the same person's expression-changed faces were randomly presented with distractor faces. The mental image manipulation group was better than distinctive feature scan group in long-term storage. This result is considered as a long-term effect of imagery encoding and a configurational encoding by mental image manipulation.