The authors developed a 22-item scale of interpersonal sympathy that is informed by relevant practices and meanings of contemporary Japanese cultural context. In three independent samples the scale was shown to be reasonably reliable (α>.80). Furthermore, the scale had a systematic relationship with related variables, hence exhibiting satisfactory construct validity. Specifically, sympathy was positively correlated with both a reported frequency of prosocial behaviors (Study 1) and emotional empathy (Study 2). Moreover, sympathy formed a higher-order factor with interdependent construal of self, which was orthogonal to another higher-order factor comprised of independent construal of self and self-esteem (Study 3). Finally, some directions for future research are discussed.
In this study, we examined eyewitness identification involving a person who was slightly familiar to the witness. Although identification of a familiar person has been believed to be more accurate than that of a stranger, we expected that misidentification of a familiar distracter as the target would occur, and in such cases, the witness would be more confidence than when correctly rejecting the familiar person. A total of 102 participants were assigned to one of four conditions where familiarity with the distracter and the visibility of the target's photo were manipulated. First, they rated impressions of several photos in terms of personality traits to increase familiarity of some, then were presented with the target photo in either dark or bright condition. Finally, they were asked to identify the target in a two-photo lineup, where the critical trial included a familiar distracter. Results indicated that 66.7 per cent of subjects who saw the target photo in the dark condition misidentified the distracter as the target. At the same time, confidence for the choice (misidentification) was significantly higher than that of correct rejection. The findings were discussed from the forensic viewpoint.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between coping behavior and stress response of undergraduates as they experienced over time prior to an examination. One hundred forty eight undergraduates were asked to complete a set of questionnaires on coping behavior and stress response at a month (TI), a week (T2), and immediately (T3) prior to an important examination. Cluster analysis showed that there were four clusters of coping behavior at each period of time. Regardless of their effort level, students with high distress showed higher stress score than those with low distress. In hierarchical regression analysis of stress response change, an interaction effect of effort change and distress change over T1 to T2 was significant. Stress responses lessened for students whose effort score increased but distress score decreased. The opposite was true for those whose effort score decreased but distress score increased. From T2 to T3, a main effect of distress was significant: For students whose stress response increased, distress score also increased.
The purpose of this study was to examine the internal process of identity formation in late adolescence in relation to the psychosocial identity crisis from the viewpoint of the individual-group conflict. Subjects (252 universit students) were classified into one of three types, depending on two phases of the individual-group conflict: (a) whether or not the conflict has been experienced; and (b) if so, whether or not the conflict had already been solved. The traits of each type were subsequently determined by examining the individual's awareness of their relationship with the group and their sense of identity. The main results were as follows: (a) The experiencing of the individual-group conflict was closely related to the unsettling of the sense of identity. (b) Men tended to resolve the individual-group conflict by detaching themselves from the group and defining a personal sense of identity. (c) In women, at least two means of resolving the conflict were found. One of these means was similar to means used by men, while the other means was that of immersing themselves further into the group.
This study investigated the effects of display and memory load on the event-related potentials (ERPs) in a visual letter search task combined with selection by color. ERPs were recorded from 10 adult subjects, when they were required to judge if test stimuli, which consisted of a horizontal array of five colored alphabets, contained target letters defined by shape and color. The results showed that the increase of display or memory load caused the enlargement of three different negativities. The first and second display load effects were observed in the ERPs at midline central electrode (Cz) between 240-280 ms latency range, and in a posterior-distributed negativity that was the maximum at about 650 ms after the stimulus onset. The third was the anterior-central negativity that was the largest at Cz about 550 ms after the stimulus onset. In contrast to the first two effects, this negativity was enhanced by display or memory load. In discussion, a tentative linkage between these ERP changes and two slave systems of working memory (phonological loop and visuo-spatial sketchpad) was proposed.
The purpose of the present study was to clarify the effects of positive ideal-real self discrepancy, negative ideal-real self discrepancy, and irrational belief on self acceptance. A total of 464 university and vocational school students, an average of 21.1 years old, participated. Results confirmed the prediction that the smaller the positive ideal-real discrepancy, and the larger negative ideal-real discrepancy, the higher is the self acceptance score. It was also found that the effects of the positive ideal-real self discrepancy depended on the intensity of irrational belief, and the belief was thus a moderator of the effect. On the other hand, the intensity of irrational belief did not moderate the effect of negative ideal-real self discrepancy. Finally, the findings were discussed in relation to the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic and counseling efforts to enhance self acceptance.
This study focused on the effects of a mental countermeasure on the detection of deception using the P300 component of event-related brain potentials. Thirty-three subjects were divided into two groups: a countermeasure (CM) group and a non-countermeasure (NCM) group. The CM group was instructed to count backwards by sevens during the experiment. Relevant stimuli were subjects' own family names and irrelevant stimuli were four other typical Japanese family names. The subjects were required to press a button when the name stimuli were presented on a CRT display. The use of the mental countermeasure significantly prolonged reaction time to the stimuli and reduced overall P300 amplitudes. The P300 amplitudes to the relevant stimuli, however, were consistently larger than those to the irrelevant stimuli in both groups. The correct detection rate of the relevant stimuli was 81% in the CM and 94% in the NCM group, but the difference was not statistically significant. These findings indicate that deception can still be detected by using P300, in spite of the use of the countermeasures by subjects.
The purpose of this study was to examine positive illusion phenomena among Japanese students. In Study 1, students were asked to rate themselves and the average same-sex student of their university or vocational school, in terms of their personality, optimism about the future, and belief in personal control. Results indicated that participants showed positive illusions in their ratings of agreeableness, conscientiousness, optimism for negative future events, and personal control. However, negative illusions were found in their ratings of extraversion, openness to experience, and appearance. In Study 2, participants were asked to compare themselves with the average same-sex student of their university or vocational school. Results were similar to those of Study 1. Cultural factors appeared to be responsible for those positive and negative illusions.
Working memory is a set of processes or a system that allows us to temporarily maintain task-relevant information during performance of complex cognitive tasks. It has recently been an intensively investigated topic in cognitive psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and other related disciplines, and important empirical and theoretical advances have been made during the last several years. In this article, we review the current state of working memory research, focusing on important recent methodological and theoretical developments in the field. Specifically, we provide an update of recent influential working memory theories (e.g., Baddeley's multicomponent model and an ACT-R model) and discuss the current status of various controversial theoretical issues, such as the unitary versus non-unitary nature of working memory, the nature of working memory limitations, the control and regulation of working memory, and the relationship of working memory to long-term memory. We conclude our review by pointing out some important future directions for working memory research.