A female chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) was trained on the conditional-discrimination task using 3-dimensional objects under a face-to-face experimental setting. In Experiment 1, the subject was required to pick up the correct comparison object, take it to the sample object, and construct a new paired-object with a specific action. After acquisition of the task, derived stimulus relations (associative symmetry) were tested. The subject showed a significant emergence of symmetry only when the spatial arrangements of stimuli were changed between the baseline and test trials. In Experiment 2, the subject was tested under the condition where the action to constructed paired-object was common to all stimuli. The subject showed significant above-chance performance in the transitivity test, but not in the symmetry tests. The present results are generally consistent with previous studies in chimpanzees that show weak evidence for the emergence of symmetry.
Boundary extension is a picture-memory phenomenon that viewers remember seeing wider-angle view than was actually depicted in a photograph. To explain boundary extension, Intraub, Bender and Mangels (1992) proposed the scene context hypothesis that boundary extension is due to viewer's expectance of scene continuity outside the camera's field of view. The present study tested this hypothesis. Experiment 1 replicated the phenomenon of boundary extension. In Experiment 2, a retention interval did not have much effects on this distortion. Experiment 3 revealed that the occurrence of boundary extension was affected by activation of scenic representation that would have existed outside the picture frame. These results supported the scene context hypothesis.
This study found non-linear functional relations between speech-rate and impressions of speakers' personality-traits. University students (N=376) evaluated speakers' personality impressions for speech sounds that were converted at different speech-rates from the original utterance spoken by four Japanese and four native English speakers. A short version of the Big Five Scale based on the five-factor model of personality was used. Factor analysis showed that listeners recognized each personality-trait independently through speech sounds, and that speech-rate affected personality impressions of speakers differently depending on the traits. Multiple regression analysis revealed that quadratic regression equations could provide good approximations of personality-trait values, and all the non-linear relationships were described fairly well. The locations of the peaks and the spread of the quadratic functions vary from trait to trait. The complex metamorphosis of personality impressions via speech-rate converted sounds can be inferred by combining those five curves. Finally, participants showed more sensitive responses to Japanese speakers than to English speakers.
The purpose of this study is to investigate correlations between anxiety and physical traits of facial expressions. In this study, subjects were divided into two groups on the basis of MAS (manifest anxiety scale), and were taken pictures under three different conditions. In Analysis I, we examined how facial expressions differ between high-anxiety and low-anxiety groups. The results showed that facial expressions differed between two groups especially in mouth, left half of the face, and asymmetry of the face. In Experiment I and II, we investigated whether human beings could identify one's anxiety trait and apparent anxiety in facial expressions only on the basis of its facial expressions. The results showed that one's anxiety trait and apparent anxiety could be detected through the mouth. From these results, human beings can recognize one's anxiety through its facial expressions.
The aim of the present study was to specify guilt eliciting situations for Japanese adolescents, and examine the relationship between guilt-proneness in the situations and personality traits. With an open-ended questionnaire, 315 guilt experiences were collected and categorized into 37 situations. Situational Guilt Inventory (SGI) for the 37 was developed and administered to 500 Japanese adolescents. Factor analysis found four factors: hurting others, inconsiderate to others, acting selfishly, and debt feeling toward others. SGI scores had positive correlations with private and public self-consciousness and depression. However, correlations with the Big Five were low, none higher than. 2, except those with conscientiousness. The factors were similar to those of Dimension of Conscience Questionnaire (DCQ; Gore & Harvey, 1995) and Situational Guilt Scale (SGS; Klass, 1987), except that they do not have the fourth: debt feeling. These results showed some characteristics of guilt among Japanese people, as well as reliability of the inventory.
This study examined the nature and origin of ‘sense of nigate, ’ which is an awkward and uncomfortable feeling one has toward specific, relatively few others, especially in a interpersonal situation. Study 1 investigated its nature with a questionnaire administered to company employees (200 men and 45 women) and undergraduates (243 men and 205 women). Two factors were found for the sense: troublesomeness and apprehension. It should be noted that apprehension was lower for management than non-management workers. This tendency was due to the worker position, rather than his/her age. In Study 2, self-monitoring scale (Lennox & Wolfe, 1984) was administered to 60 high school students (12 men, 47 women, and one unknown), to investigate the origin of the sense. As predicted, sense of nigate had a negative correlation with the ability to modify self-presentation, and positive one with the sensitivity to expressive behavior in others.
Typically, vibration discomfort of railway cars was studied with railway employees as evaluator, because of their availability and interest, as well as various study requirements. However, it has not been shown that employees are appropriate for the task. In this study, railway employees were compared with college students in order to find how their ratings compared with those by ordinary passengers. An experiment was conducted in a running train, and 41 persons participated; about a half were railway employees and the other college students who were invited as non-specialists. Their task was to rate vibration discomfort on a scale of 1 to 4, continuously at an interval of 5 seconds. Results indicated that employee ratings showed smaller individual differences and in general were more cautious than the student ratings.
This study examined effects of binocular information on visual orientation perception and visuomotor control of a hand using two tasks in which observers matched the orientation of two rods. On the perceptual matching task, they were asked to make a visual judgment of the orientation of two rods. On the motor (preshaping) task, they were asked to move a rod which they can not see by their hands so as to match the orientation of the presented rod. Decrement in availability of binocular cues produced considerable disruptions on the motor task, while did less disruptions on the perceptual matching task. Hence binocular information seemed to play a critical role on the motor task. These results are consistent with recent suggestions that visual perception and visually guided motor control should be mediated by separate visual pathways.
This study examined the ability in recursive thinking to solve problems. To think recursively is one of the most effective ways to break up large and complex problems into smaller ones. This study prepared two problems with the same tail recursion: The “Guess-the-Number game” and the “Hat puzzle (Wise men puzzle).” Because participants (N=35) were not familiar with recursive thinking, they learned how to think recursively in the Guess-the-Number game. Then, we tested whether they could solve the Hat puzzle recursively. The results show that two-thirds of the participants could solve the problem recursively, even if the size of the problem increased. Furthermore, their solution times had differed between correct and incorrect answers. This suggests that the difference reflected a “saving” of effort for problem solving.
Changes in correlation dimensions of the electroencephalogram (EEG) were examined in three different tasks. These three tasks differed from each other with respect to the number of procedures. In the present experiment, left-hand movement and mental arithmetic were controlled, respectively, during an auditory linguistic task. Subjects were 13 healthy right-handed males. EEG signals from eight electrode sites were analyzed and the correlation dimensions were obtained. In addition, the relative power was obtained for the alpha band. An increase in the number of procedures yielded high dimensionality on the occipital EEG. In contrast, left-hand movement had no significant effect on EEG dimensions over the motor area. The relative power of the alpha band was seen to decrease in all channels as the number of procedures increased. The fact that changes in EEG dimensions did not necessarily exhibit a simple correspondence to changes in alpha wave activity was also discussed.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality and characteristics in collage work. Seventy undergraduates filled the Yatabe-Guilford (YG) personality test and produced a piece of collage work. The YG personality types were not different in terms of collage work characteristics. However, emotional adaptation and introvert/extrovert scores were reflected in the number of cuttings used in the piece. General activity score was reflected in the number of vehicle pictures used. Those who used an eye picture had a tendency to be depressed and lacking in confidence. Those who used a “stone circle” picture tended to be more emotionally adapted and extroverted. The results suggested a possibility that personality traits were reflected in specific characteristics in collage work.