This study examined interactive processes that occurred in video-mediated referential communication task. Pairs of participants were assigned to one of four conditions; in a room with partition, or in separate rooms linked by telephone with three levels of noise interference (none, low, and high). In all conditions, a video-monitor link allowed the participants to see the upper body of their partner. Analyses of gestural and visual interaction revealed that participants in partition and no-interference conditions did not rely on the visual channel, while those in the others frequently looked at the monitor. Furthermore, gestural references appeared especially in high-noise condition. Qualitative analyses of conversations showed that participants in high-noise condition relied more on demonstrative references, and used more metaphoric expressions of a whole referent, based on the common ground shared by the pair. These results are discussed in terms of how people collaboratively interact and construct a shared context for communication between them.
Cronbach's alpha coefficient is an index of reliability for the total score of a set of measurements. The alpha takes a value of 1.0 when the total score variance is perfectly attributable to the common factors running through the test items. In this research, a method of estimating Cronbach's coefficient alpha is proposed for the case where the parameters of dichotomous item response model are known and the ability distribution of subjects is given. In addition, the case of polytomous response model where the item parameters are estimated by graded response model (Samejima, 1969) is also considered, and a method of estimating the alpha coefficient is proposed for that case.
The purpose of present studies was to create brief self-report scales to assess individual differences in the sensitivity of two neurological self-regulatory systems; one is the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) which bears on aversive motivation, and the other is the behavioral approach system (BAS) which bears on appetitive motivation. Scale development was reported in study 1, and convergent and discriminant validation using alternative measures of similar constructs was reported in study 2. In study 3, positive and negative affect was manipulated in a controlled setting. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that participants with higher BIS sensitivity would show heightened emotional reactivity to negative mood induction, whereas higher BAS sensitivity would show heightened reactivity to positive mood induction. Furthermore, results indicated that higher BAS sensitivity not only inhibited negative affect in response to negative mood induction but also facilitated recovery from negative mood states. These results suggested that abnormal sensitivity of either system may be a vulnerability factor of psychopathology, when specific situational cues are present.
This study investigated whether people's levels of confidence (CL) judgments and feeling of knowing (FOK) judgements in answering questions about general knowledge were influenced by information about normative difficulty of the questions-that is, the percentage of people who could recall the correct answer to the question-. In easy-information condition, participants were told that questions were easier-that is, more people could answer the questions-than they really were. In difficult-information condition, participants were told that the same questions were more difficult-that is, less people could answer the questions-than they really were. Results showed that the participants gave higher CL judgments and higher FOK judgments for their answers in the easy-information condition than for their answers in the difficult-information condition. These results confirm the hypothesis that people's CL judgments and FOK judgments were influenced by the information about normative difficulty of questions.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of public self consciousness on forced laughter. Participants (N=409) were asked to imagine a group of either friends or acquaintances, and then to indicate how often he or she exhibited forced laughter toward the group members. They also completed Self Consciousness Scale (Fenigstein, Scheier, & Buss, 1975). Results indicated that persons with high public self consciousness reported more frequent expressions of all types of forced laughter-expression control, intimacy maintenance, action control, and affect manipulation-than those who were low, regardless of interpersonal intimacy level. Besides public self-consciousness, both gender and intimate feeling toward group members influenced frequency of forced laughter. Implications for the nature of public self-consciousness and forced laughter were discussed.
This study examined whether pitch accent would affect young children's short-term retention of words. Sixteen 3- and 4-year-olds and fourteen 5- and 6-year-olds received word-span tests under two conditions. In one condition (pitch accent-congruent condition), the pitch accent of presented words were congruent with the pitch accent that the children usually use for those words; whereas, in the other condition (pitch accent-incongruent condition), the pitch accent of presented words were not congruent with the pitch accent that the children usually use for those words. Three- and 4-year-olds' word span was shorter under the pitch accent-incongruent condition than under the pitch accent-congruent condition; whereas the pitch accent of presented words did not affect 5- and 6-year-olds' word span. The result was discussed in terms of the roles of pitch accent in the activities of the phonological loop and word learning.
Ninose & Gyoba (1996) examined delays in the recognition of Kanjis following prolonged viewing. They suggested that a Kanji pattern may be internally represented as a whole and the prolonged viewing may produce an adaptation effect specific to such a representation. The present study examined responsible factors producing the delay effect more in detail by manipulating figural components of adaptation and test Kanjis. The delay occurred only when the test Kanji was the same pattern as the adaptation Kanji in all local details. In contrast, the delay were not observed either when the global pattern of the test Kanji was similar to that of the adaptation Kanji, or when a part of the test Kanji was the same pattern as the whole configuration of the adaptation Kanji. These results indicate that the delay effect is produced by prolonged viewing of the adaptation Kanji with exactly the same local and global configurations as the test Kanji, while the previous studies have revealed that the delay effect occurs independent from Kanji's size and orientation in some ranges.
To investigate the effect of eye movement on suppression of binocular rivalry in the half occluded region, which is the monocular region made by occlusion, the amount of binocular rivalry in the half occluded region was measured in the eye movement condition and the fixating condition. In the eye movement condition, the observer moved their eyes between the occluder and the occluded object. In the fixating condition, the observers fixated the occluder (the fixating-the-occluder condition) or the occluded object (the fixating-the-occluded-object condition). Following facts were found: (a) the amount of binocular rivalry in the half-occluded region reduced more in the eye movement condition than in the two fixating conditions, (b) there was no significant difference in the amount of binocular rivalry in the half occluded region between the two fixating conditions. These results suggested that eye movement is one of the factors to suppress binocular rivalry in the half-occluded region in natural viewing situations.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of benefit finding in the experience following the death of a family member. Two hundred and thirty-four (234) bereaved persons completed a questionnaire of several scales, including benefit finding (Finding Benefits Scale: FBS), optimism, social support, and mental health (a 28-item Japanese version of General Health Questionnaire: GHQ-28). Factor analysis with promax rotation revealed that FBS had three major factors: Appreciation for Life, Own growth, and Appreciation for human relationship. The first two showed a significant correlation with GHQ-28, but Appreciation for human relationship. Optimism similarly had a significant correlation with the two, while the perception of social support after- bereavement had a significant correlation with both Appreciation for Life and Appreciation for human relationship. These findings suggested that benefit finding played a role in the psychological process of bereavement.