In this study, we examined external and “alien” reinforcement (ER and AR. respectively) as a factor in social learning, and studied the combined effects of culture and reinforcement mode. A female (Experiment 1) and a male (Experiment 2) experimenters conducted experimental sessions. Both men and women, who grew up in the same culture as the experimenter, participated and performed the experimental task. A three-way interaction effect of experimenter gender, culture, and reinforcement mode was found on task performance. And the effect was more pronounced for a Japanese experimenter. A female and a male experimenters conducted Experiments 3 and 4, respectively; however participants this time were men and women who grew up in different cultures than the experimenter. Results indicated that the pattern of the subject gender and reinforcement mode interaction effect, when the experimenter was Japanese with American subjects, was exactly opposite to that when the experimenter was American. These experiments showed that AR was as effective for social learning as ER, and that the cultural backgrounds of experimenter and subject influenced AR and ER effectiveness.
We investigated the visual information used to recognize human head from a variety of viewpoints. Subjects' task was to identify three familiar people from five different views (from the frontal face to the back of the head in steps of 45°). The mean reaction time (RT) was not affected with changing head angles when the image was original face version. RT significantly decreased when the images contained in high spatial frequency (SF) component. Moreover, there was an effective SF range in recognition from each viewpoint, which was the middle range far the frontal face and the higher range for the back of the head. For the profile, there was no change in RT across the ranges of SF. These results suggest that different view-specific information was used on each view for identification, and the recognition of the profile might be unique on familiar face processing.
In two experiments, we investigated whether the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm using implicit and explicit memory tests would produce critical lure (CL) words. Participants studied lists of semantic associates (e.g., newspaper, book, write) to induce memories for CL words (e.g., read). Afterwards, participants participated in implicit and explicit memory tests in each experiment. The level of priming of the CL words was quite high and similar to that of the presented words when participants were instructed to image the interword relation on lists during study. Participants explicitly recognized many CL words as having been presented on the lists in Experiment 1 and recalled many CL words in Experiment 2. The results are discussed in light of Underwood's (1965) implicit associative response hypothesis.
Conscious defensiveness has been found to mediate the relationship between hostility and coronary artery disease. In order to investigate the influence in Japan, the Conscious Defensiveness Questionnaire (CDQ) was developed and its validity and reliability were assessed in the present studies. The first study with college students (N=419) was conducted to construct the CDQ as a 16-item questionnaire based on two preliminary researches. Factor analysis indicated that the 16 items in the CDQ conform to one factor structure, and the CDQ showed adequate factorial validity as well as high internal consistency. In the second study, the results of test-retest with college students (N=225) revealed satisfactory stability of the CDQ over a 6-to 7-week period, and furthermore it showed construct validity in the relationships with peer ratings and nominations for college and graduate students (N=191). Thus the present studies established the CDQ as a standardized questionnaire to measure conscious defensiveness.
In study 1, the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of Stress Check List for the Visually Impaired (SCLVI) were investigated. Results demonstrated high reliability and validity. In study 2, multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the effects of personal factors on daily stress measured by SCLVI in 144 people with visually impairment. The predictors were: sex, age, age their eyesights were impaired, and whether or not the subjects have family members to live with; the dependent variables were 3 stress subscales. Results showed that “disturbing and conflicting stress” was lower among the older than among the younger visually impaired people. The visually impaired with higher eyesight levels felt higher stress in their interactions with people with normal eyesight. It was concluded that age and sight level among personal factors affect daily stress of visually impaired people significantly.
The purpose of this study was to make a clear distinction between the effects of neighborhood size (Coltheart, Davelaar, Jonasson, & Besner, 1977) and that of kanji character frequency on the processing of two kanji compound words (jukugo). Kanji characters found in many compound words tend to be frequent, so neighborhood size of jukugo and the character frequency of the component kanji of these jukugo tend to be interrelated. In this study, the effect of neighborhood size on jukugo with medium subjective frequency was investigated controlling kanji character frequency. In an experiment using a lexical decision task with 30 participants, neighborhood size, front kanji character frequency, and. rear kanji character frequency of jukugo were manipulated. The results showed that both the neighborhood size and the kanji character frequency affected the lexical decision of jukugo. The fact that there was no interaction between front and rear kanji character frequencies suggests that front and rear characters of jukugo with medium frequency were processed in a serial fashion.
This study examined the hypothesis that computer mediated discussions lead to more extreme decisions than face-to-face (FTF) meeting. Kiesler, Siegel, & McGuire (1984) claimed that computer mediated communication (CMC) tended to be relatively uninhibited, as seen in ‘flaming’, and that group decisions under CMC using Choice Dilemma Questionnaire tended to be more extreme and riskier than FTF meetings. However, for the same reason, CMC discussions on controversial social issues for which participants initially hold strongly opposing views, might be less likely to reach a consensus, and no polarization should occur. Fifteen 4-member groups discussed a controversial social issue under one of three conditions: FTF, CMC, and partition. After discussion, participants rated their position as a group on a 9-point bipolar scale ranging from strong disagreement to strong agreement. A stronger polarization effect was observed for FTF groups than those where members were separated with partitions. However, no extreme shift from their original, individual positions was found for CMC participants. There results were discussed in terms of ‘expertise and status equalization’ and ‘absence of social context cues’ under CMC.
The purpose of the present study was to understand the concept of aggressiveness of children through an analysis of the relationship between aggressiveness and personality traits. A total of 1206 elementary school children were enrolled in the study. In order to investigate the correlation, a path analysis was performed using multiple regression analyses in which 4 variables of aggressiveness (irritability, hostility, physical aggression and verbal aggression) were employed as dependent variables and 5 variables of personality traits (agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotionality, openness and extroversion) were used as independent variables. The results of the analysis indicated that significantly positivepath was observed from extroversion to all four variables of aggressiveness. Extroversion indicated especially strong influence on irritability and physical aggression. A significantly negativepath was observed from agreeableness to irritability and hostility. From conscientiousness, a negative path was observed towards physical aggression and a positive path towards verbal aggression. A significantly negative path was observed from emotionality only towards verbal aggression. It was assumed that each of the four inferior characteristics of aggressiveness of children had a complex nature to be influenced by multiple personality traits.
This study examined the reliability and validity of Japanese psychological reactance scales. A total of 167 undergraduates completed a questionnaire of Therapeutic Reactance Scale (TRS), the Hong Reactance Scale (HRS), the Uniqueness Scale, and the Collectivism Scale. They also received messages involving three persuasion situations that were either high or low in terms of threat, and were asked to describe their reactions to them. The author categorized the reactions into three: acceptance, indirect resistance, and direct resistance. Reliabilities of the reactance scales were satisfactory. Their scores positively correlated with uniqueness scores, and negatively with collectivism scores. Those high on reactance proneness were less persuaded in two of the three situations. But in the third, an HRS by threat interaction was observed, indicating that only those who were high on reactance proneness under the high-threat condition showed resistance to persuasion. These results suggest that the Japanese versions of reactance scale were reliable and valid. However, the assertiveness aspect of TRS may not be appropriate for the definition of reactance. The influence of culture on psychological reactance was also discussed.
In this study, we examined the expertise of actors, for which few studies have so far been conducted. Participants for the study, all male, were ten novice actors with less than one year experience, ten intermediate actors with experience of one to five years, and ten junior expert actors with more than five years of acting. The process of acting in a play was divided into three phases; script reading, performance planning, and actual performance. We asked some questions of participants in each phases, and analyzed video recording of their actual performance. Results suggested that novice actors had some difficulties in understanding the ‘written’ in the script. It was also suggested that in planning performance, the longer experience the actor had, the more things he could take into account, and the longer he spent for the preparation. Therefore, performance of junior expert actors was more diversified. Our findings also indicated that junior expert actors were more adept at expressing what they wanted to without being consciously aware of what they had actually to do.