The purpose of the present study was to investigate the ability of schizophrenic patients to take another person's perspective. Two perspective taking tasks were examined: perceptual and affective perspective taking. Three groups participated in the study: 22 schizophrenics, 11 transient psychotic disorder [TPD] patients, and 20 normal students. Both schizophrenic and TPD patients scored significantly lower in the both perspective taking tasks than the normal controls. The affective perspective taking scores of the two patients groups were compared with those of six year-old children. Although schizophrenic and TPD patients were thought to be able to infer another's affective state correctly, they sometimes made errors in the task, because they failed to control for their own affect. Thus, their response tendency was different from the normal children of the age. The two patients groups appeared to have a common specific difficulty in inferring another's emotions.
This study investigated if emotionality affects the occurrence of source misattribution, which seems to be the most valid mechanism of misinformation effect. A half of 120 participants saw an emotionally stressful videotaped movie, and the other half a neutral one. Then, they answered the questionnaire, which included misinformation about the details of the movie. After 15 minutes or 2 days, they answered the source monitoring test, which required them to select the source of the memory of details that had been presented in the movie and/or in the questionnaire, or not either of them. Several patterns of differences in test performance appeared between the emotional condition and the neutral condition. These differences suggest that the ability for source monitoring declined more saliently with time in the emotional condition than in the neutral condition, and that memories about visually central details are less vulnerable to misinformation effect with 15 minutes delay in the emotional condition than in the neutral condition.
Event-related brain potentials were recorded from participants who listened to two pairs of words (and occasionally nonwords) simultaneously presented to both ears with stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of 1s on a trial. When participants were instructed to fixate their attention to one ear and detect nonwords, the N400 attenuation was observed for a word repeated in the attended ear. The requirement of interaural attention switching between the first and second presentations of word pairs, however, suppressed the repetition effect on N400, even when the first and repeated presentations of a word were attended. The suppression of N400 attenuation was interpreted to indicate that attention switching interferes with the immediate availability of the decision for the first presentation in working memory.
Black sheep effect (Marques, Yzerbyt, & Leyens, 1988) and ingroup favoritism (Tajfel, Billig, Bundy, & Flament, 1971) appear to contradict each other with respect to the evaluation of inferior ingroup members. In addition to examining the relationship between the two phenomena, this study also examined the effect of ingroup identification on them. Sixty-one female student-nurses participated in the study. To measure black sheep effect, superior and inferior ingroup and outgroup members were rated on 20 adjectives. Distribution matrices (Tajfel et al., 1971) were used to measure ingroup favoritism. The participants were median split according to their level of group identification. Black sheep effect was found only among high-identification participants, who also showed ingroup favoritism. Ingroup identification had a positive correlation with both ingroup favoritism and black sheep effect. Overall, ingroup favoritism had a positive correlation with the evaluation of superior members, while it had a negative correlation with that of inferior ingroup members.
The purpose of this study was to investigate negative bias on self-referent processing in depression, focused on the mood congruent effects in a natural depressed state and an experimentally induced transient depressed mood state. In Experiment 1, autobiographical memories and self-relevant ratings of personality trait words were examined in a natural depressed state or non-depressed state, which were measured by Beck Depression Inventory. Results revealed the mood congruent effects on both tasks. In Experiment 2, the same tasks as Experiment 1 were conducted in a transient depressed mood state or non-depressed mood state, which were induced through listening music. Unlike Experiment 1, there were no effects in both tasks, and a positive bias was observed in both mood states. It was suggested that transient mood state did not bias self-referent processing in depression, and Beck's schema hypothesis was supported.
In this study, we investigated mood effects on impression formation of typical and atypical target persons, in an attempt to replicate the findings reported by Forgas (1992a). Listening to a particular piece of music, participants were first induced into positive, negative, or neutral mood. Then, they read statements, in which typical and atypical targets were described with positive and negative personality traits. While reading the statements, they were asked to form an impression of the target, and evaluate him/her. After the impression formation task, they were given ten minutes for an incidental free recall test. Results showed that mood congruent memory effect was found regardless of the targets. On the contrary, mood congruent judgment effect in positive mood was found only for typical targets. It was suggested that mood effects depend on the kind of information processing strategies triggered by typical and atypical targets.
The aim of this study is to investigate the link between the cognitive appraisals of prebereavement and mental health after spousal loss. One hundred and twenty widow (er) s answered questionnaires concerning appraisals of prebereavement (Scale for Appraisals of Prebereavement: SAP) and mental health (General Health Questionnaire Japanese version, 28 items version: GHQ-28). As a result of factor analysis with promax rotation, it was revealed that SAP had four main factors: “Human relationship with the deceased, ” “Life of the deceased, ” “End of the deceased, ” and “Hospital staff and care.” Age of the subjects showed positive correlations with both “Total appraisal of prebereavement” and “Life of the deceased.” It was shown that the SAP as a whole had very little relationship with each subscales of GHQ-28. The psychiatrically high-risk widow (er) s have more positive appraisals on both “Total appraisal of prebereavement” and “Life of the deceased.” The implications of these findings for family care and bereavement care were discussed.
The present study examined how relationship with husband and child and interpersonal attitude affected a women's personal development as mother. One hundred forty-two mothers with a 3- to 5-year-old child completed a questionnaire that consisted of three scales: Parent Development Scale (Kashiwagi & Wakamatu, 1994); Husband and Children Attachment Scale (Ohinata, 1988); and Attachment Style Scale (Takuma & Toda, 1988). The last was used to measure the person's basic interpersonal attitude. Results indicated first that the person's close relationship with her child had an influence over various aspects of development as mother. Second, strong attachment to her husband seemed to make the person more active in her life. Third, the interpersonal attitude appeared to be related with the person's flexibility.