The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between peer communication skills and social behavioral characteristics of preschool children. Data for 42 preschool children, five to nine years old, were analyzed in the study. Teachers were asked to rate the children on a number of social behavior measures, and classify them into competent, aggressive and withdrawn groups. It was shown that children of the withdrawn group accepted more requests from others than those of the other groups. Generally, in terms of feedback they gave, the withdrawn were not much different from the competent, but forms of feedback were more often nonverbal. As for the aggressive, feedback was more varbal than the withdrawn when another directly spoke to them, but tended to be equally nonverbal when it was not clear whom other were speaking to.
The present study examined the effects of hypnosis on aggression and depression in depressed undergraduate students. Six frustrating situations were presented to 13 mildly depressed subjects as well as to 13 non-depressed subjects. All subjects were studied both in light trance and in the waking state. Their emotions were measured by numeric rating scales and open-ended questions. On scores using with numeric rating scales, depressed subjects were less depressive under trance as compared to the waking state. Responses to open-ended questions, which were scored by four racers, indicated that depressed subjects were less aggressive during trance than during the waking state, while non-depressed subjects were more aggressive under trance. Furthermore, the depression score was lower during trance than during the waking state. These findings suggested that depressed subjects were not repressive, while non-depressed subjects were repressive and exhibited controlled anger in the waking state.
Visual short-term memory (VSTM) has been investigated with a change detection task. Recent studies suggested that there might be some representations in VSTM even when a change was not detected. However, this is discrepant with the previous studies that estimated the representation by change detection. In this study, we investigated the properties of the representation to be retained between two stimuli in a change detection task combined with the probe method so as to explore what causes the discrepancy. The interval between the test and the comparison stimuli and the timing of a positional cue at the location of change were manipulated. The results of three experiments suggested that, before the comparison stimulus presentation, the representations in VSTM were retained more than representations estimated by a normal change detection task, that they decayed with time, and that their availability decreased when the representations of the comparison stimulus were formed. From these results, we discussed a model of VSTM with attention.
Generalized self efficacy is considered one of important personality traits that determine psychological and physiological stress responses. The present study examined the interaction effects of generalized self efficacy and controllability of acute stress on salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA), task performance, and psychological stress responses in a typical learned helplessness paradigm. Twenty low and 19 high self efficacy undergraduate women performed two response selection tasks one after another. In the first task, they were exposed to controllable or uncontrollable aversive noise. The second task was identical for all, but perceived controllability was higher for the high self efficacy group than the low. Performance under uncontrollable condition was lower than controllable condition. The interaction of self efficacy and controllability was observed only on the s-IgA variable; increase of secretion of s-IgA secretion under stressor uncontrollability was more prominent in the low self efficacy group than the high. These results suggested that generalized self efficacy was a moderator of the stressor controllability effect on secretory immunity.
We examined the relationship among intelligence, working memory, and reading comprehension using structural equation modeling (SEMI). Ninety-six participants were instructed to perform two reading comprehension tests and six cognitive tasks: two verbal intelligence subtests, two spatial intelligence subtests, and two reading span tasks. Three latent variables that were called verbal ability, spatial ability, and working memory were derived from the six cognitive tasks. SEMI demonstrated that the latent variables of working memory and verbal ability contribute to reading comprehension, suggesting that central executive functioning related to attention control was mediated among these cognitive abilities.
Two alternative explanations for ingroup favoritism in the minimal group situation have been proposed: social identity and expectations of bounded generalized reciprocity. In this study, predictions derived from the two were examined for ingroup favoritism in a realistic group salutation with ongoing interactions. Results of the experiment, a replication of Karp, Jin, Yamagishi, and Shinotsuka (1993) which used groups with ongoing interactions rather than minimal groups, were inconsistent with either of the two explanations. (1) Ingroup favoritism emerged even in the condition under which the nature of fate control was unilateral. The finding was in sharp contrast to results of previous minimal groups experiments; the studies found ingroup favoritism only when fate control was mutual. (2) Analysis of post-experimental questionnaire responses indicated that participants engaged in ingroup favoritism, not to maximize differences between ingroup and outgroup but to improve ingroup members' gain. (3) Analysis of participants' open-ended self reports revealed that they engaged in ingroup favoring reward allocation because of their personal bonds and likings for ingroup members as individuals rather than of their identification with the group per se.
The present paper examined whether people employ different support-gaining strategies toward various sources of support. In Study 1, 231 Taiwanese undergraduates were asked the frequency of each strategy they used for three support types: tangible, psychological, and informational, from four support sources: parents, professors, same-sex close friends, and same-sex acquaintances. In Study 2, 363 undergraduates were asked to think of an opposite-sex friend: an acquaintance, a close friend, or romantic partner, and write the frequency of each strategy they used. Results of ANOVA indicated that main effects of source and strategy and a three-way interaction of source by strategy by gender were significant. In Study 1, the students used various strategies most frequently toward parents and same-sex close friends, and least frequently to professors, and in Study 2, more frequently to close friends and romantic partners than to acquaintances. The strategy most often used was reasoning, followed by entreaty, roundabout request, exploitation, promise of reward, exhortation, and threat, in the descending order. No effect was found for the support type factor.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships between Lambda (L) and other variables in the Rorschach comprehensive system. Individual Rorschach tests based on the comprehensive system was administrated to 102 female normal adults (over 20 years old). High L group and Low L group were defined on the basis of median value. The two groups were compared on major variables. The high L group had significantly higher values on variables such as DQo, D, Dd, S, Hd than the low L group. In contrast, the low L group had significantly higher values on variables such as DQ+, Blends, M, FM+m, Sum C', “active”, H, COP than the high L group. Clinican who use the Rorschach test should consider these variables in relation to L, when interpreting the structural summary of the comprehensive system.
In recent years, we see many examples of applying item response theory to psychological questionnaires. There are various conditions under which psychological tests are administered. Often, we are interested in the subjects' latent traits in the context of experimental design. In that case, we might want to know the effects of the experimental factors on the item parameters. In this study, we proposed an item response model in which items could be classified by some qualitative factors as in the situations where the items are administered under several different experimental conditions. The model's item parameters were linearly structured as in the general linear model. Then, we showed an example of analysis using an actual data set which was collected under four conditions, where the latent trait in question was “tension.”
I investigated the relationship between encoding of the structural description system and binocular stereopsis. The structural description system is a component of the implicit memory system, and retains representations of possible figures. According to the previous studies, the priming effect based on it was produced only when the direction of the stimulus, which was the line drawing of the 3-dimensional object, was judged in the study phase. Because the judgment requires 3-dimensional processing, I proposed a hypothesis that the priming effect is also produced by binocular stereopsis in the study phase, and examined it by two priming experiments, in which different five undergraduates participated respectively. In the study phase, the primer was presented in binocular disparity (Experiment 1) or monocularly (Experiment 2), and the participants judged which lines were more, horizontal or vertical. In the test phase, the participants judged that the monocular stimulus was symmetrical or asymmetrical. The priming effect was produced only in Experiment 1, and was not in Experiment 2. The results supported the hypothesis, and suggest that encoding needs 3-dimensional processing in the structural description system.
The impressions of words and drawings that represented the same concepts (joy, anger, tranquility, etc.) were examined by the semantic differential technique. In the word (W) condition where the participants were presented with only the word stimuli, two factors (Evaluation and Activity) were extracted. By contrast, in the drawing (D) condition where the participants only saw the drawings, three factors (Evaluation, Activity, and Potency) were extracted and the potency factor was found to have large factor loadings for the adjective-pairs containing high relevance to tactile sensation. The same tendencies were found in the drawing+word (DW) condition where the drawings and the words were presented simultaneously. These results revealed that the factor structure in the W condition differed from those in the D and the DW conditions, and that the drawings aroused tactile sensations. Further analysis in the evaluation factor implied that the impressions produced in the DW condition had unique characters that could not be reduced to those in the W and the D conditions.