It is hypothesized that a bird's-eye view affects children's thinking on the transition from route to configurational knowledge. Children were asked to make a cognitive map about the region where they live. Then each child was identified whether he had a bird's-eye view or not according to the small-scale space task (i.e., “apples on the table” task) and the large-scale space task (i.e., “a landscape” task). The results of cognitive mapping showed that the children who had a bird's-eye view on the small- and large-scale space tasks produced a number of “node, ” “path, ” and “landmark” and also could place the targets better than the children who did not have a bird's-eye view. It is discussed that there is relationship between a bird's-eye view and production of nodes, and that a bird's-eye view could affect children's cognitive mapping on the transition from route to configurational knowledge.
This study examined the relationship between the quality of a middle-aged mother's current relationship with her adult daughter and such indices of her well-being as depressive symptoms and self-definition. A cross-sectional sample of 231 middle-aged women with an adult daughter completed questionnaires. The results showed that middle-aged mothers with a married daughter felt closer to their daughter than did mothers with an unmarried daughter. The association between the quality of mother-daughter relationship and mother's psychological well-being changed, depending on whether the daughter was married or employed, and whether the mother was employed. Among the mothers who were not employed, with a married daughter, a positive mother-daughter relationship was associated with reports of high self-definition and lack of depressive symptoms while the mother's dependence on her daughter had a negative association with her psychological well-being.
When evaluating something, both numerical indices (numerical evaluation) and verbal impressions (verbal evaluation) can be used. Previous studies suggest that these evaluations differ in the reflection of typical attributes and atypical attributes of the object being evaluated. In this study, two experiments were performed to examine this suggestion. In both experiments, subjects were required to evaluate the effects of countermeasure programs to prevent plague. In the first experiment, the atypical attributes of the object were manipulated, and in the second experiment, the attributes that participants must pay attention to were manipulated by instruction. In Experiment 1, verbal evaluation reflected more atypical attribute than numerical evaluation, and in Experiment 2, the differences between numerical evaluation and verbal evaluation were systematically changed by the instruction. Some theoretical considerations are presented in the general discussion.
Social learning is an effective mechanism to reduce uncertainty about environmental knowledge, helping individuals adopt an adaptive behavior in the environment at small cost. Although this is evident for learning about temporally stable targets (e.g., acquiring avoidance of toxic foods culturally), the functional value of social learning in a temporally unstable environment is less clear; knowledge acquired by social learning may be outdated. This paper addressed adaptive values of social learning in a non-stationary environment empirically. When individual learning about the non-stationary environment is costly, a hawk-dove-game-like equilibrium is expected to emerge in the population, where members who engage in costly individual learning and members who skip the information search and free-ride on other members' search efforts coexist at a stable ratio. Such a “producer-scrounger” structure should qualify effectiveness of social/cultural learning severely, especially “conformity bias” when using social information (Boyd & Richerson, 1985). We tested these predictions by an experiment implementing a nonstationary uncertain environment in a laboratory. The results supported our thesis. Implications of these findings and some future directions were discussed.
This study examined the stability and variability of interpersonal coordination, in which one person breathed while the other moved a wrist back and forth with an inverted pendulum in hand. Nine pairs of subjects coordinated each other's movement in two relative phase modes. In one mode, Radial flexion-Inspiration and Ulnar flexion-Expiration (RIUE), one subject radially flexed the wrist as the other inhaled and ulnarly flexed it as the other exhaled. In the other, Ulnar flexion-Inspiration and Radial flexion-Expiration (UIRE) mode, the wrist was ulnarly flexed at inhalation, and radially flexed at exhalation. Results were as follows: (1) The two were more highly coordinated in RIUE mode than UIRE mode as the frequency of oscillation increased. (2) Phase transitions were observed from URIE to RIDE mode, as the frequency of oscillation increased. And (3) the more different in preferred frequency the pendulum and breathing movements were, the more deviated from the intended relative phase the coordination became. These results suggest that interpersonal coordination of breathing and wristpendulum movement is qualitatively equivalent to intra personal coordination between them.
It is known that a semantic satiation effect depends upon the characteristics of the task. For example, the effect has been found on a category decision task, but not found on a lexical decision task. Based on these results, previous studies concluded that because the task is influenced from factors other than semantic access, the lexical decision task was inadequate for semantic satiation. On the contrary, this study found the effect on a variation of a lexical decision task. In Experiment I, 16 college students performed a category-matching judgement. In Experiment II, 24 students performed a lexical decision on a pair of letter strings. The results of both experiments showed the semantic satiation. These results suggested that a lexical decision task was able to detect the satiation as long as the task was complicated.
At both the beginning and the end of a school year, 124 sixth-year elementary school students and 242 first-year high school students completed questionnaires regarding mutual support in friendships and stress responses. For elementary school students, support reciprocity did not correlate significantly with stress responses at either the beginning or end of the school year. For high school students, support reciprocity related significantly to stress responses at the end of the year but not at the beginning. These results suggest that the relationship between support reciprocity and mental health is influenced by the developing relationship between two people as well as the state of each individual's development at the time of mutual support.
This study examines stress-buffering effects of coping strategies among caregivers for Japanese impaired elderly. Eight hundred thirty-two valid responses obtained from primary caregivers of impaired persons aged 65 years old and over living in the community were analyzed. A path model was constructed with physical disability and cognitive impairment of the elderly as the primary stressor, caregiving captivity as the secondary stressor, followed by burnout. Main and interaction effects of five coping strategies were examined by regression analysis with interaction terms between the primary stressor, the secondary stressor, and five coping strategies. Four main effects of coping strategies were found: “Diversion” decreased caregiving captivity; “Keeping their own pace, ” “Positive acceptance of caregiving role, ” and “Diversion” decreased burnout. Two buffering effects were found: “Diversion” decreased caregiving captivity only at low level of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) impairment; “Keeping their own pace” buffered the detrimental effects of caregiving captivity for burnout.
It is argued that high mnemonic performance demonstrated in the ideal-self reference task did not unequivocally show that richness and organization of knowledge in the ideal self were responsible for performance. Accordingly, this study used goal-evaluation task, in which the participants classified each trait into either “want to be” or “not want to be” category. In this way, richness and organization of knowledge in the ideal and “feared selves” were compared. In Experiment 1, recall performance under goal evaluation condition was compared with that under actual and ideal self-reference conditions, and no significant difference was found. In Experiment 2, the taskfacilitation paradigm was used to test weather the goal evaluation task was performed be selectively accessing the two sets of self-knowledge. As a whole, results suggested that the task required selective access to both selves, and reflected richness and organization of knowledge for both ideal and feared selves.
Previous formal work on iterated social dilemma has shown that the strategy prescribing one to cooperate if m or more others cooperated in the previous round and defect otherwise, loses their effectiveness as the group size increases. The only reciprocal strategy formally proved to be effective in an N-person situation is “trigger strategy” (Friedman, 1986). This strategy presumes that people set the threshold for cooperation, m, at its maximum, namely N-1: all members other than self. This study investigated whether people's choice behavior in iterated social dilemma approximated such a strategy. In groups of seven, participants played a social dilemma game repeatedly. They were provided with complete information regarding others' choices in the three preceding rounds, when making a choice in the current round. Results indicated that participants became more reciprocal as the game progressed, responding more sensitively to how many others cooperated in the previous round. Furthermore, the participants used a strategy in the game that were more lenient for reciprocation, with lower threshold for cooperation, than trigger strategy. Implications of current findings and some future directions were discussed.