This study examined the relationship between utterance inhibitions in conversations and mental health. Utterance inhibitions were classified into five groups: partner orientation, self orientation, partner-self distance maintenance, norms and situations, and lack of communication skills, according to their presumed causes in motivation and skill. A questionnaire asked 271 undergraduates, 131 men and 140 women, how often they experienced such inhibitions, in what situations, and so on. They also completed General Health Questionnaire. Results indicated that when the frequency of inhibitions due to lack of communication skills was high, both men and women reported poorer mental health. When the frequency of inhibitions due to norm and situation considerations was high, women reported better mental health. These relationships between inhibition frequency and mental health were all linear. Moreover, dissatisfaction ratings of conversations mediated the effect of utterance inhibitions on mental health in women, but not in men. These results suggested that we needed to look into quality differences among various kinds of utterance inhibitions.
When the luminance of one side of the sclera is darkened artificially, the perceived direction of gaze biases toward the darker side of the sclera. This gaze effect was measured in photographic and schematic images of eyes using Japanese subjects. The effect was larger than previous results: the gaze shift induced by luminance reached 40 deg of gaze or more. The luminance of the iris also affected the results. The effect of scleral darkening was compared to the gaze shift induced by an actual shift of the iris. The results suggest that one mechanism for gaze judgment is based on low-level analysis of the luminance configuration within the eye. This effect might appear to be large in Japanese subject because of their equally dark iris.
In visual search tasks using pop-out stimuli, memory of the stimuli in previous 3 to 10 trials affects search performance in the present trial. This is called priming of pop-out. We examined the adult age difference of the effect with Memory Kernel Analysis (Maljkovic & Nakayama, 1994, 1996). It was revealed that with respect to target color and position, facilitation by the stimulus repetition and inhibition by the stimulus change lasted over the succeeding approximately three to eleven trials in both age groups. While eye movements were frequently observed in older subjects and their reaction times were longer than younger subjects', the priming effect was robustly observed. These results suggest that facilitation and inhibition for pop-out features are intact in older adults. The number of trials the effect persisted was discussed in terms of age-related differences of capacities of the memory mediating the effect.
The purpose of this study was to investigate recent changes in marital norm and reality in middle-aged couples, and how marital reality, as perceived by oneself, was associated with their demographic variables, as well as their marital satisfaction. A questionnaire was administered, and 277 pairs of middle-aged, nuclear-family couples participated. Main findings were as follows. First, factor analysis of marital reality variables extracted three factors: love each other, respect for the husband's life style, and respect for wife's life style. Second, concerning the wife's education and income, ‘respect for the wife's life style’ was highest among highly educated double income couples. Third, ‘love each other’ was the most important predictor of marital satisfaction for both husbands and wives. Finally, ‘respect for the husband's the life style’ was associated with husband's satisfaction, while that for the wife's was not with wife's marital satisfaction.
Attentional-load theory (Lavie, 1995) states that task load determines whether task-irrelevant stimuli are processed semantically. In three experiments students were asked to perform a Stroop-like task. They named a centrally fixated target color, while ignoring the task-irrelevant stimulus, which was an incompatible, compatible or non-color word. When perceptual load (the number of target-like stimuli adjacent to the target) was increased, the Stroop-like effect was diminished, providing the evidence for early selection. However, when cognitive load (task demands for identical stimuli) was increased, the evidence for late selection was found. These results were inconsistent with the previous hypothesis that both kinds of task load similarly affect the attentional mechanism.
In this study, we developed a ratings scale for estimating sleep onset that would be capable of providing quantitative evaluations of the quality of the sleep onset process. We also examined factors affecting sleep onset using a questionnaire consisting of two separate clusters of items; the first, consisting of 9 items, related to the quality of sleep onset; and the second, consisting of 56 items, related to factors with apparent effects on sleep onset. The questionnaire was administered to 515 day-workers (range: 25-44 years old) for standardization. Each item was weighted based on the distribution of subject responses to determine discrimination. The reliability coefficient α for the questionnaire was high, exceeding 0.8. Of 41 items set out as potential factors affecting sleep onset, the results of the questionnaire indicated that five factors consisting of 26 items could be isolated as most likely affecting sleep onset. Path analysis indicated that sleep onset is more commonly affected by factors present at bedtime than factors related to sleep quality the previous night, or to daytime activities.
Results of three experiments, in which a total of 167 students participated, consistently indicated that participants performed recognition tasks better for face photographs of defectors than those of cooperators. The face photographs used in the experiments were those of participants taken during prisoner's dilemma (PD) experiments a few years prior to the present study. In Experiments 1 and 2, photographs of cooperators and defectors in a one-shot PD experiment, taken after they had filled out a lengthy post-experimental questionnaire, were used. In Experiment 3, the photographs were those of high and low cooperators, taken at the moment of a cooperation or defection choice, respectively. Recognition was better for photographs that were judged unattractive than attractive. At the same time, it was better for photographs of less cooperative participants in the PD studies than those of more cooperative participants. Implications of the findings for Cosmides & Tooby's (1992) ‘cheater-detection’ module for social exchange domain were discussed.
Normalized pulse volume (NPV, Sawada, Tanaka, & Yamakoshi, 2001) was calculated on a beat-to-beat basis by dividing the ac component by the do component in near-infrared finger photoplethysmogram. Finger arterial compliance index (CI) was obtained by dividing NPV by the respective pulse pressure. Twelve female subjects underwent immersions of the contralateral hand in water at two different temperatures (44°C, 22°C). During the last 3 min of each of the 8-min resting and immersion conditions, CI was measured for the finger position at heart level, 15cm, and 30cm below the heart for 1 min each. Results indicated that a negatively linear regression could be applied to the beat-to-beat data on log CI and mean blood pressure (MBP) over the three finger position (whole regression). CI calculated at 90mmHg (CI 90) was arbitrarily chosen as a reference point for comparing compliance among conditions. CI 90 decreased significantly during the 22°C condition. In conclusion, CI seemed more valid as an index of the finger arterial vascular tone through the removal of MBP influence.
This study investigated effects of personal control on psychobiological stress responses. Salivary cortisol was used as an index of hypothalamic pituitary-adrenocortical axis response. Healthy males (N=20) were exposed five times serially to a psychosocial stressor: mental arithmetic under time pressure. “Chance control”, “other powerful controls” and “internality” were reported personality-dependent aspects of personal controls, “personal control as coping” under the psychosocial stress situation was also assessed with a questionnaire after the session ended. Cortisol response showed significant increase (F(16, 304)=6.69, p<0.01). From the view point of personality, the high “chance control” score group showed higher levels of cortisol compared to the low score group before stressful tasks. On the other hand, the high “personal control as coping” score group showed higher levels of cortisol compared to the low score group after the stressful tasks. We inferred that the high “personal control as coping” score group conducted stressful tasks with high concentration and effort. The effects of such personal controls as personality and as ways of coping were demonstrated in this experiment through cortisol secretion in different stress-process phases.
This study used the approach-avoidance interpersonal conflict model to test the hypothesis that conscious defensiveness would enhance the effects of hostility on casual blood pressure and depression. The subjects were healthy schoolteachers (56 males and 48 females), aged 22 to 59 years, They completed a battery of questionnaires that contained the Japanese version of the Japanese version of Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BAQ) for hostility, the Conscious Defensiveness Questionnaire (CDQ) for conscious defensiveness, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) for depression. Conscious defensiveness had no significant influence on the relationship between hostility and blood pressure. In contrast to earlier studies, hostility was a predictor of lower diastolic blood pressure in men. In addition, the hypothesis on depression was not supported. In order to prevent from developing cardiovascular disease and depression, future studies should investigate the role of conscious defensiveness in the effects of hostility on casual blood pressure and depression as well as the alleviating influence of hostility on casual diastolic blood pressure using a large sample.