The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction effect of depressive tendency and self-focused attention on self referent processing of personality trait adjectives. Pairs of adjectives were used; they were similar in meaning, but one was positive in desirability, while the other negative. Sixty undergraduates, 30 mildly depressed and 30 normal controls, participated in the study. Only the self focus group was first given a self-focus sentence completion test, and then all of them performed a self-referent judgment task with the adjectives. Immediately afterward, they were asked to recall as many adjectives as possible in an incidental memory task. Main results were as follows: The mildly depressed judged both positive and negative adjectives as equally applicable to themselves, while the controls judged negative ones to be less applicable. If self-focus was on the positive side of themselves, recall performance of the depressed became poorer, while that of the controls became better. If the focus was on the negative side, both groups recalled more positive adjectives, and fewer negative ones. These findings suggest that self focused attention had different effects, depending on the person's depressive tendency.
The two main purposes of the present study were to construct the self-motivational strategies scale for junior high school students, and to examine the validity of the scale. In the first study, from the result of factor analysis on the data of 449 students, eight subscales were constructed, and differences in subscale scores between grades were found. In the second study, the relationships among eight self-motivational strategies, four types of motivation, academic stress coping strategies and appraisal of academic stressors were examined. It was shown that different aspects of students' self-motivational strategy were differentially related to their academic motivation and the use of some stress coping strategies. In addition, covariance structure analysis was carried out to investigate the validity of the scale. The results supported the construct validity of all but one of the subscales.
Psychological research often deals with psychological constructs that cannot be directly measured. Thus independent variables of regression analysis for an observable dependent variable are sometimes latent variables (factors) that are defined independently of the dependent variable. In this study we pointed out the problem associated with the use of factor analysis for the combined set of dependent variable and independent variables in such a cases; that is, the derived factors are different from those originally intended, and the true regression parameters cannot be reproduced. We proposed a stagewise estimation method to solve the problem. This method estimates parameters of measurement equation in the first stage, and then estimates parameters of structural equation in the second stage. Our proposed method enables calculation of standard errors of estimators using Bootstrapping method. Numerical studies showed that the proposed method improves the estimation efficiency over the conventional methods, and provides estimates which are robust with respect to misspecification of model.
There is a tendency that a blind or a blind-folded subject fails to return to a starting point within the range of errors when he or she walks to a place, next turns to right or left, and then comes back to the starting point. We studied this tendency from a non-Euclidean geometrical point of view. In Experiment 1, total of 28 blind-folded subjects walked to construct a square, a regular triangle and a circle. The result showed that the location of the final reaching point was on the fronto-right side of the starting point in the square and triangle conditions and went over the starting point in the circle condition. In Experiment 2, 15 subjects judged visual properties (angles and distances) of a triangle and constructed the triangle by walking. The walking loci were compared with the visual properties. It was found that the walking loci were curved, differing from the visual properties. These results implied that the walking loci agree with the nature of elliptic geometry.
The effects of delay in evaluating the future loss were examined. College students as participants were asked to indicate the amount of money they would pay immediately, supposing they had enough money to pay any amount, instead of paying the fixed amount (100 000 yen) in future after various delays. Two types of questions were employed. When the participants were asked to fill out the maximum amount they are willing to pay immediately rather than paying the fixed amount in future, the reported amount was described by a monotonically decreasing (hyperbolic or power) function of the delay. When they were asked the minimum amount for the alternative against which they would choose the fixed future payment, however, they answered greater amount than the fixed future amount. This result is in clear contrast to the generally reported “discount of value” for future reward. This kind of discrepancy between two types of questions was not observed when the participants made decisions between fixed and probabilistic alternatives, and the data fitted the theoretical functions adequately.
The present experiment investigated the ability of recognition and long-term retention of sound pattern of words extracted from spoken sentences in preverbal infants. When preferences of 8-month-old Japanese infants for target words and for novel words were tested by head-turn preference procedure, immediately after being auditory exposed to spoken sentences that included the target words, they showed preference for target words significantly over novel words. They were able to recognize words that were presented within sentences previously. Moreover, such preference was confirmed when the infants were tested with a 2-week interval. On the other hand, their preference for prosodic properties of the exposed spoken sentences was not confirmed. Infants retain information of those words that were extracted from the speech analytically rather than holistically.
The distinction between ingroup and outgroup has played an important role in group process research. However, much less attention has been paid to variations among ingroups. In this study, we attempted to demonstrate that different ingroups could have different psychological impacts on self and group serving or effacing behavior. In our social survey, Japanese respondents evaluated the importance and psychological meaning of two typical ingroups their family and another social group in which they spent most of their time. They were also asked about their behavior in the presence of ingroup members from each group. Results indicated that people showed a self-effacing tendency in the social group, whereas they showed a self-serving tendency in their family. At the same time, they showed a group-serving tendency when they talked about the social group, but they showed the opposite, i.e., a group-effacing tendency, when they talked about their family. These differences are explained in terms of relationships with ingroup members.
The six attentional-style subscales of the Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style (TAIS, Nideffer, 1976) have been used mainly in the sport psychology area to investigate the relationship between attentional abilities and performance. This study assessed the validity of the Japanese version of the TAIS attentional-style subscales with 157 male and 163 female students. A confirmatory factor analysis failed to validate Nideffer's attentional dimension of bandwidth (narrow to broad attention) and direction (internal to external). The findings replicate previous studies which showed that the structure of the TAIS attention-related subscales is not reasonable and its factorial validity does not meet the needs of psychometrics.
The purpose of this study was to develop a Japanese Need for Closure Scale. In Study 1, Webster and Kruglanski's (1994) Need for Closure Scale was translated into Japanese, and administered to 240 undergraduates. Factor analysis of the Japanese version indicated that a three-factor structure was most appropriate. In Study 2, a revised scale was developed based on the result of Study 1, and administered to 577 undergraduates. Analysis of the revised Japanese Need for Closure Scale showed that it had sufficient internal consistency and test-retest reliability. In addition, confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the scale had a multidimensional structure. In Study 3, the scale was administered together with five relevant personality scales to 340 undergraduates, and sufficient construct validity of the scale was demonstrated.
In this study, a subjective well-being scale was developed, and its reliability and validity evaluated. The Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWBS) had twelve items which covered four domains. It was administered to 1005 adults and 520 college students. Results indicated that for the students, college life satisfaction and self-esteem had positive correlations with SWBS score. For the adults, marital satisfaction, workplace satisfaction, and household income satisfaction had positive correlations with the score. These findings showed considerable constructive validity for SWBS. In addition, internal consistency was sufficiently high, indicating the measure's high reliability. SWBS may be a simple but reliable and valid measure, and it is useful for examining subjective well-being of both adults and college students.