The purpose of this study is to investigate acquisition of shemata about location of urban facilities. Materials were photos of public space, in which one of three urban facilities (a mailbox, a public-telephone, and a coinoperated locker) were removed by photo-retouching software. The task was to choose the most suitable urban facility for each corrected-photo and to locate it at the most suitable position on the photo. Among three participant groups (primary school 3rd grade: n=153, primary school 5th grade: n=118, undergraduate: n=250), undergraduates chose the most suitable urban facility, and their located position was more concentrated. The results suggest that participants acquire the schemata and use them for inference. Although even 3rd grade children have acquired the schema to some extent, the adults have more detailed schemata of urban facilities in public space.
The nature of recollective experience was investigated in two recognition memory tasks. Subjects gave “Remember” judgments to recognized items that were accompanied by conscious recollection and “Know” judgments to recognized items that were familiarity of events without recollection on recognition. Highmfamiliarity words that are based on conceptual and semantic information enhanced “Remember” judgments. In contrast, compared with high-familiarity words low-familiarity words that are caused perceptual fluency enhanced “Know” judgments (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, spacing effect, an advantage in memory for information repeated at separate points of time over information repeated in massed fashion was found for “Remember” judgments. However, spacing effect disappeared for “Remember” judgments when memory load was high at study. These findings are interpreted as providing further support for the idea that recognition memory entails two distinct components, one based on elaborative information, the other based on perceptual fluency.
A questionnaire surveys of women was conducted, 58 persons at one month, 73 at four month, and 42 at one year after childbirth, in order to investigate the relationship between social support and mental health. Main results concerning stress-buffering effects of social support were as follows. At one month after childbirth, marital intimacy showed stress-buffering effect. At four months, beneficial factors were; informational and emotional support and social companionship from family members other than husband or mother, and informational and emotional support from a friend who was the second closest. At one year were; instrumental, informational, and emotional support and social companionship from other person who was not among those already mentioned, and informational and emotional support and social companionship from still another who was the second important. These results suggested that social support network of women underwent successive changes after childbirth. In addition, a model of changing social support network was presented, and it suggested that changing support network so that one could obtain appropriate support was effective on stress buffer.
Four experiments investigated the effects of cross-modal attention between vision and touch in temporal order judgment tasks combined with spatial cueing paradigm. In Experiment 1, two vibrotactile stimuli with simultaneous or successive onsets were presented bimanually to the left and right index fingers and participants were asked to judge the temporal order of the two stimuli. The tactile stimuli were preceded by a spatially uninformative visual cue. Results indicated that shift of spatial attention yielded by visual cueing resulted in the modulation of accuracy of the subsequent tactile temporal order judgment. However, this cueing effect disappeared when participants judged simultaneity of the two stimuli, instead of their temporal order (Experiment 2) or when the cue lead time between the visual cue and the stimuli was relatively long (Experiment 3). Experiment 4 replicated an effect of crossmodal attention on the direction of visual illusory line motion induced by a somatosensory cue (Shimojo, Nliyauchi, & Hikosaka, 1997). These results demonstrate that substantial crossmodal links exist between vision and touch for covert exogenous orienting of attention.
This study investigated the affects and behaviors that accompany and follow anger episodes, and examined the relationship among them, in hope of developing self regulated and effective methods of controlling anger. With an open-ended questionnaire, 42 anger episodes were collected and categorized. Results suggested that typical anger episodes were instigated by selfishness, insult, coercion, and trouble, and a close person such as friends was often the cause and target of anger. Surprise and depression frequently accompanied it, and eight forms of response followed: rationalization, cause searching, aggression, social sharing, displacement to object, mood change, forgetfulness, and rumination. Another questionnaire examined the relationship among these variables, as well as trait anger, perception of malice, and sense of injury, with a sample of 118 undergraduates. Results indicated, first, that sense of injury was heightened by trait anger and malice perception. Second, anger and depression were evoked only by a sense of injury. Finally, while anger without depression evoked aggression, anger with depression led to mood change and forgetfulness.
For conducting efficient visual search, it is important to inhibit spatial attention from reorienting to previously examined distractors. Several studies have proposed that this inhibition can be associated with object-based inhibition of return (IOR). The present study examined whether the spread of IOR across an object's surface affects the performance of visual search or not. If the spread of IOR occurs in visual search, unexamined targets and distractors linked with the previously attended items would be inhibited. We found that the spread of object-based IOR results in the increases of error rates in the target present trials and the decreases of reaction times in the target absent trials. These results indicate that participants made “absent” responses before examining all items if object-based IOR spread over unconfirmed items. We discuss the function of object-based IOR in visual search and also deal with how visual search is terminated.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the functions of involuntary memory in the course of daily life. The participant was the author, a 39-year-old male at the time when the record of involuntary memories was begun. When an autobiographical memory occurred spontaneously, the participant would record the contents of that memory and the circumstances surrounding its occurrence, such as the triggered cues for the remembered event and the participant's activity and mood at the time. Over a period of four and a half years, involuntary memories of 184 events were collected. The results suggest four functions of involuntary memory: (1) confirmation of one's existence at a given time in one's life history; (2) confirmation of one's own psychological traits; (3) confirmation of one's relationship to others; and (4) the direction or regulation of one's behavior. One of the main functions of involuntary memory may be to provide one with the opportunity for recognition of the individual's stable beliefs and behavior, that is, the sense of self-continuity.
We explored mechanisms of cross-modal priming between visual and haptic modalities. Specifically, we investigated a mechanism of the visual-to-haptic transfer (Experiment 1) and vice versa (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, three experimental groups, presented visual prime stimuli using novel three-line patterns, were asked to form visual images matching only with shape, haptic images matching only with shape, or haptic images matching with both shape and texture of haptic targets. Priming occurred only when induced haptic images of prime stimuli coincided with the actual texture of haptic targets. In Experiment 2, two experimental groups, presented haptic prime stimuli, were asked to form visual images matching only with shape, or visual images matching with both shape and material (i.e., monochromatic contrast between foreground and background) of visual targets. Priming occurred regardless of experimental conditions, including the control group. Thus, both shape and material representations significantly contributed to the visual-to-haptic transfer. Contrastingly, only shape representation played a significant role in the haptic-to-visual transfer.
This study investigated the performance on a computer game called Mastermind, playing of which consumes a large amount of working memory resource. First, 143 college students took a Japanese version of reading span test (RST). They then played Mastermind under two conditions: with or without display of past game records. There were 105 participants who relied under both conditions on a tactical strategy that caused high memory load, and their performance data were analyzed. Results indicated that low-span readers (87 students) were more constrained than high- and medium-span readers (18 students) under the condition without display, and performance of the low was affected by the content of display. It was argued that working memory resource that RST measured was involved in the process of cognitive problem solving.
We conducted this study in order to examine the relationships between early adult attachment styles and social adjustment, such as mental health and self-perception in the context of close relationships. Questionnaires were administered, 460 undergraduates participated in the study, and their data were analyzed. Results showed that secure attachment was positively related to better mental health and positive self-perception in close relationships. In contrast, insecure attachment, especially ambivalent style, was negatively related to social adjustment. As for attachment dimensions, “Anxiety” was significantly associated with negative states in mental health, such as anxiety, insomnia, and sever depression, and lower self-perceived confidence in close relationships, and “Avoidance” with low self-perceived sociability and attractiveness in close relationships. These results were discussed in terms of the theoretical concepts of adult attachment styles.