This study investigated the change in feelings of regret over time in relation to decision-making style, critical thinking, behavior, and coping methods with the regret. Seventy undergraduate students completed a questionnaire on critical thinking, decision-making styles, feelings of regret and the coping methods in five different situations: entrance examinations, declarations of love, skiing, career changes, and investments. Results showed the following. First, in situations which normally occur only once (i.e., entrance examinations), subjects who indicated inaction felt increased regret over time, but those who indicated action felt decreased regret. Conversely, in situations which occur regularly (i.e., declarations of love and skiing), both of those who indicated action and inaction felt decreased regret. Second, people who indicated action coped with their regret using the method of rationalization more often than those who indicated inaction. In situations which normally occur only once, analytic decision-makers tended to cope with their regret by improving their behavior more than intuitive decision-makers. Finally, critical thinkers tended to adopt an analytic style more often than an intuitive style.
We investigated whether people can consciously remember type fonts of words by methods of examining explicit memory; source-monitoring and old/new-recognition. We set matched, non-matched, and non-studied conditions between the study and the test words using two kinds of type fonts; Gothic and MARU. After studying words in one way of encoding, semantic or physical, subjects in a source-monitoring task made a three way discrimination between new words, Gothic words, and MARU words (Exp. 1). Subjects in an old/new-recognition task indicated whether test words were previously presented or not (Exp. 2). We compared the source judgments with old/new recognition data. As a result, these data showed conscious recollection for type font of words on the source monitoring task and dissociation between source monitoring and old/new recognition performance.
The purpose of this study was to validate the three dimensional model of classifying coping behavior. The three are: Encounter-Avoidance, Problem-Emotion, Behavior-Cognition Dimension. A set of questionnaires on coping behavior and psychological stress responses were administered, and 1 604 undergraduates and 1 296 adults completed them. Analyses of covariance structure were performed, and results indicated that the three dimensional model, with eight coping style, showed the highest goodness-of-fit statistics. Multiple regression analyses also indicated that Problem-Emotion and Behavior-Cognition dimensions were useful for predicting the coping effects on psychological stress responses. Therefore, the two dimensional model of Problem-Emotion and Behavior-Cognition, with four coping style, would be helpful for further investigation of coping behavior that would buffer psychological stress responses.
Seventy-six participants first played a prisoner's dilenma (PD) game with an anonymous partner and then predicted behavior of other participants in the same PD game. In addition, they took a test of accuracy in judging sociometric relations among group members. Of the four factors of empathy, the two reflecting emotional aspects -self-directed and other-directed emotional responses- were found to have no relation with accuracy in predicting behavior of other participants and judging sociometric relations among group members. In contrast, the other two reflecting cognitive aspects -imagination and perspective taking- were found to be related to accuracy in predicting behavior of other participants in the PD game. Of the two, imagination was a better indicator of accuracy in the prediction than perspective taking. Implications of these findings are discussed in terms of domain specificities of adaptive task that different aspects of empathy are thought to fulfill.
This study investigated time series changes and relationships of affects, cognitions, and behaviors immediately, a few days, and a week after anger episodes. Two hundred undergraduates (96 men, and 104 women) completed a questionnaire. The results were as follows. Anger intensely aroused immediately after anger episodes, and was rapidly calmed as time passed. Anger and depression correlated in each period, so depression was accompanied with anger experiences. The results of covariance structure analysis showed that aggressive behavior was evoked only by affects (especially anger) immediately, and was evoked only by cognitions (especially inflating) a few days after the episode. One week after the episode, aggressive behavior decreased, and was not influenced by affects and cognitions. Anger elicited all anger-expressive behaviors such as aggressive behavior, social sharing, and object-displacement, while depression accompanied with anger episodes elicited only object-displacement.
Conflicts sometimes arise between the language teachers and foreign students in the Japanese language instruction setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of causal attribution and selection of conflict resolution strategies in such conflicts, and to explicate the characteristics of intercultural conflicts resolution strategies, especially paying attention to the teacher expectation of student strategy to resolve a conflict. A questionnaire was administered to 84 Japanese teachers, 214 Chinese students, and 154 Korean students. Results indicated that when students attributed the conflict to the teachers, they chose assertive strategies, and that when attributed to themselves, compromising strategies were used. Moreover, while Chinese students tended to use such compromising strategies as cooperation and obedience when they attributed the conflict to cultural differences, Korean students did not tend to use non-confrontational strategies. The teachers did not expect their students to use assertive strategies, and the large gap between teacher and student perception of assertive strategies could be one of reasons for difficulties that arise in such intercultural conflict resolution.
The vocal expression of emotion was examined with both an auditory experiment and objective acoustic analyses. In the auditory experiment the stimuli were words or short sentences with six basic emotions expressed by two actors. Forty-five undergraduate and graduate students participated in the experiment. The results showed that the vocal expression of emotion was strongly identified, except in the case of fear, and that the six basic emotions could be plotted in a psychological space with two dimensions calculated from multidimensional scaling. The plot formed a roughly circular surface, with locations very similar to those of the facial expressions. One dimension was considered to represent the element of pleasantness-unpleasantness. The actors' voices were then acoustically analyzed. The results suggested that the mean fundamental frequency (F0), the standard deviation (SD) of F0, and the SD of the energy are the important factors that define the characteristics of the vocal expression of emotions. To determine the most important parameter (s) and explain the two dimensions of the psychological space, canonical correlation analysis was conducted. The analysis indicated that F0 was correlated with the pleasantness-unpleasantness dimension.
The self-reference effect was examined using the IRK (independence/remember-know, Jacoby, 1998) procedure. In the learning phase, participants were asked to rate trait words in one of the three ways of encoding: self-reference, semantic, and physical. In the test phase, they were told to use a word-stem as a cue to recall studied words, if they could not recall, to complete stems with the first word that came to mind. Furthermore, participants were to classify the completed words into those they “remembered, ” those they “knew, ” or “new.” Estimates derived from the IRK procedure showed the self reference effect only for the intentional memory (i.e., the “remembered” items), but not for the automatic memory. Results suggested that the self-reference effect is due to intentional use of memory.
Recent studies reported that normal people have delusional ideation. The purpose of the present study is to compare the types of delusional ideation in normal people by using the multi-dimensional scale. We examined the differences between paranoid ideation and guarded ideation, because these ideations represented delusional ideation. The multi-dimensional scale has seven dimensions: resistance, unpleasant feeling, conviction, incorrigibility, preoccupation, dismissibility and reassurance. This scale was administered to 471 college students. The results demonstrated higher scores on resistance, unpleasant feeling, preoccupation, dismissibility and reassurance than that of guarded ideation. On the other hands, guarded ideation showed higher score on conviction and incorrigibility. These findings seemed similar to previous studies on patients with delusions. The results of present study may be indicative of the continuity view of psychosis.
This study tested the hypothesis (McSweeney & Swindell, 1999) that habituation contributes to within-session decreases in drinking. Six rats' leverpressing was reinforced by water under a continuous reinforcement (CRF) schedule. During the fixed amount sessions, duration of reinforcement was fixed at 3 seconds. Reinforcement duration varied from 1 to 5 seconds, with a mean of 3 seconds, during variable amount sessions. Experimental phase lasted 10 successive days and consisted of 5 fixed amount and 5 variable amount sessions, alternating day by day. Within-session decreases in responding were steeper during fixed amount than variable amount sessions. In addition, response rates were well described as linear functions of cumulative number of reinforcements. The regression line for the fixed amount sessions had steeper slope and smaller x-axis intercept than those for the variable amount sessions. These results support the habituation hypothesis and are not explained by postingestive factors.