In study 1, the purpose was to examine the psychological changes during rehabilitation for newly visually impaired people. Before and after the 6 months rehabilitation training, we conducted Yatabe-Guilford Personality Inventory and Manifest Anxiety Scale (MAS). The results showed that scores of depression, cyclic tendencies, feeling of inferiority, nervousness, lack of objectivity, and anxiety decreased and ascendance increased significantly. In study 2, we compared the differeces of scores between those who needed psychotherapy in addition to rehabilitation training and those who didn't. People who needed psychotherapy scored significantly higher on the depression and lack of objectivity scales than those who didn't. Supportive and behavioral counseling was conducted, however no significant changes were observed before and after psychotherapy as a whole. Furthermore, the relations among the methods, purposes and effects of psychotherapy were not observal. As a conclusion, we need to develop methods of psychotherapy which accelerate the acceptance of disability and improve psychological adaptation sufficiently.
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the member's life in destructive cults on the psychological problems after departing from the groups. A factor analysis was performed with the data of questionnaires toward 157 participants, and seven factors were extracted. They were (1) avoidance behavior to avoid out-groups, (2) restriction of freedom, (3) satisfaction, (4) behavior of submission, (5) compliance with rules, (6) punishment and reward, and (7) mysterious experience. Analyses of variance showed that restriction of freedom and punishment and reward are more likely to develop personal distress, whereas mysterious experiences are more likely to develop personal distress and interpersonal distress.
This study examined the structure of the “intention to become ideal selves”, the autonomous direct approaches in building into an ideal self. Only when people feel meanings or worth on an ideal self, do people have the intention to be it. It was predicted that if people feel meanings or worth on ideal selves, some affect related to it would rise. In addition, we predicted that the possibility to actualize ideal selves would directly or indirectly promote the intention to become ideal selves. A structural model based on these hypotheses was examined, controlling for sex and contents of ideal selves. The questionnaire was administered during class to 1 052 university students (F=453, M=599). The hypothetical structural model was examined by SEM and yielded a good estimate of model fit, and fully estimated the intention to become ideal selves. Although this structural model showed good estimates of model fit regardless of sex or contents of ideal selves, there were some differences in the standardized coefficient of the possibility to actualize ideal selves depending on the contents of ideal selves.
How can we reproduce real physical depth from a photograph? How does depth perception in the photograph differ from depth perception in the direct observation? In Experiment 1, objects in an open space were photographed and presented on a screen. Subjects were asked to judge the distances from a fixed point to the objects and the angles from the median line. The distances and the angles in the photograph were perceived shorter and larger than in physical space, respectively. Furthermore, depth perception in the photograph had an anisotropic property. In Experiment 2, the same objects as in Experiment 1 were observed directly by the subjects. The distances and the angles in the direct observation were perceived longer and smaller at longer distance than in the photograph, respectively. It was concluded that depth perception in the photograph did not reproduce depth either in physical space or in visual space, but it was closer to depth in visual space than in physical space. Furthermore, photographic space had an anisotropic property as visual space did.
Paired comparison is a useful method for assessing ranks among several objects, and it enables us to obtain more reliable data than assessing objects one by one. But paired comparison principally provides information only about the ranks of the objects. On the other hand, experimental design provides a framework for elucidating causal associations. If we could analyze paired comparison data by the experimental design framework, it would be a very effective method. But experimental design, in its original form, is not readily applicable to paired comparison data. However, if we adopt the perspective of structural equation modeling (SEM), we can deal with paired comparison and experimental design in a unified way, because they are both submodels of SEM. The purpose of this study is to provide a new method to analyze causal connection of paired comparison data by using SEM. Here, two actual numerical examples are shown, one of which is obtained by within-subject design and the other is obtained by between-subject design.
In this study, it was examined whether or not visual quality of letter strings influenced the detection of semantic satiation in a lexical decision task. Previous studies concluded that lexical decision tasks cannot detect semantic satiation, because semantic information was not fully utilized in this task. Recently, however, it has been shown that semantic satiation is detected in this task as long as semantic information of the target was fully utilized. This study examined whether or not semantic satiation in the lexical decision task is found when a visually degraded target was presented. Forty-eight college students participated in the experiment. Semantic satiation was found in the degraded target condition, but not found in the intact target condition, which was consistent with the previous studies. These results suggest that this effect in the lexical decision task is found only if the target is degraded, and semantic information of the target is available for the decision.
The objective of this study was to prove the hypothesis that successful aging was predicted by the recovery processes during the first few years of bereavement. The subjects were 184 elderly persons, whose spouses died three to 14 months prior to the first survey. Interviews were held three times in 16 years. Results showed that the depression level at the first interview was a significant factor to predict the sickness and death at the second interview, but not at the third interview. When the level of loneliness increased by the second interview than at the first, it was revealed that there were risks in sickness and death for the third interview. If the level of loneliness increased or remained high after bereavement, mental health conditions during the third interview tended to be poor. On the other hand, as loneliness decreased, happiness during the third interview increased. We concluded that a change in loneliness after bereavement was the key factor in suggesting the process of successful aging.
Two experiments were carried out to examine the effects of word emotionality on explicit and implicit memory. In Experiment 1, 46 undergraduates studied a word list followed by free recall or word-stem completion test. The list was consisted of 36 nouns with pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant words. In free recall test, both the pleasant and unpleasant words were more recalled than the neutral words. In word-stem completion test, there were no significant effects of emotional value. Experiment 2 reexamined the result of word-stem completion test in Experiment 1. A process-dissociation procedure was used to estimate two components of conscious and automatic retrieval process in implicit memory. The results suggest that the emotionality of words had a facilitative effect on conscious component but no effect on unconscious component.
Using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm, the effects of lists presentation format (blocked/random) and levels of processing of critical nonpresented lures were examined. A levels-of-processing effect in a blocked presentation order was not observed for lures. Rates of false recognition and remember judgments for lures in a shallow level of processing were significantly lower than those in a deep level of processing when items from various themes were inter-mixed instead of blocked. Results showed an interaction between levels of processing and list presentation format. It is thus concluded that encoding of each word and whole list should be both considered in understanding false memory.
This study examined the determinants of willingness to participate in a community-based disaster preparedness scheme. The theory of reasoned action (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1977, 1980; Fishbein & AJzen, 1975) was applied as a basic model and was complemented by the factor of concern about disaster. A structural equation modeling was performed to validate this model. The hypothetical model was supported for the data from the residents (N=3036) of an area with a high risk of flood damage. It was clarified that the subjective norm and concern about flood positively contributed to the intention of participating in a community-based disaster preparedness scheme. The perceived cost of preparedness was the inhibitory factor of participating in such a scheme.
Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Skinner, Martin, and Clubley (2001) constructed brief, self-administered instruments named the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), for measuring the degree to which an adult with normal intelligence has the traits associated with the autistic spectrum. In this paper, we report on a Japanese version of this new instrument. Three groups of Japanese subjects were assessed. Group 1 (n=57) consisted of adults with Asperger Syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA). The other two groups were control groups. Subjects of Group 2 (n=194) were normal adults and those of Group 3 (n=1050) were students selected from five Universities in Tokyo and Chiba. The adults with AS/HFA had a mean AQ score of 37.9 (SD=5.31), which was significantly higher than the two control groups (Group 2: X=18.5, SD=6.21, and Group 3: X=20.7, SD=6.388). While eighty-eight percent of the adults with AS/HFA scored more than 33 points, only 3% of subjects in the two control groups indicated those points. Among the controls, males scored slightly but significantly higher than females. The reliability of the AQ in both test-retest and inter-rater measures were significantly high.