This study was conducted to identify factors associated with depressive symptoms among males and females in two age groups; the middle-aged (40-59 years) and elderly (60-79 years). Subjects were 2 211 community-dwelling people (1 115 males and 1 096 females). Depressive symptoms were estimated by Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Marital status, self rated health, activities of daily living, age awareness, locus of control, and social support were assessed using self-administered questionnaires and interviews. In all groups, poor subjective health and external locus of control showed significant positive association with depressive symptoms. Age awareness was associated with depressive symptoms in female groups. Impairment of instrumental activities of daily living and lower social support were associated with depressive symptoms in the elderly groups. The findings suggested that there might be age and gender differences in the impact of factors associated with depressive symptoms.
In our study, we examined the reliability of students' evaluation of university teaching. First, we analyzed four-facet data (teacher×rater×viewpoint×order) by the generalizability theory approach, and estimated the variance components for the facets as a G study. Then, we evaluated the reliability from the point of view of the generalizability coefficient (a reliability-like coefficient that is used when a decision concerns the relative ordering of individuals) and the index of dependability (an index that is used when a decision focuses on the absolute level of an individual's performance independent of others' performance), and examined how those indices change as the number of raters and viewpoints are changed. With these analyses we found conditions needed to maintain sufficient reliability of the evaluation for various situations. We also introduced a new method to evaluate the reliability at each level of facet by using structural equation modeling. By this method, one can examine the reliability of students' evaluation of university teaching more specifically.
A recent study reported that normal people who have social anxiety and attention to social and interpersonal cues show paranoid ideation (Martin & Penn, 2001). The purpose of the present study was to examine whether people with these diatheses show paranoid ideation in the diathesis-stress framework. Questionnaires were administered to 177 college students three times. At Time 1, social anxiety and attention to social and interpersonal cues were assessed. These variables were used in Martin and Penn (2001) as the diathesis factor of paranoid ideation. At Time 2, paranoid ideation during the period, and at Time 3, paranoid ideation and stress events between Time 2 and Time 3 were assessed. Setwise hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to predict the change in the incidence of paranoid ideation from Time 2 to Time 3. Result revealed significant interaction effects between social anxiety and stress. Students with high score on the social anxiety scale showed an increase in paranoid ideation when they experienced more stress events.
Anderson, Bjork, and Bjork (1994) devised a retrieval-practice paradigm, thereby showing that remembering can cause forgetting, termed retrieval-induced forgetting. The present research examined what aspect of memory was suppressed by the inhibitory mechanism accompanied by remembering, by using an implicit memory task. Thirty-six undergraduates learned a list of 36 category-instance pairs. They performed directed retrieval practice on some critical items from the learned list by completing a series of cued-fragment recall. Following a distractor task, they then performed either an explicit or an implicit memory task probed by category-plus-first letter pairs. The results indicated the typical pattern of retrieval-induced forgetting in the explicit memory task, but not in the implicit memory task. This suggests that the inhibitory mechanism affects the explicit retrieval process (accessibility) rather than representation of items in memory (availability).
This study investigated the effects of repeated exposures to male and female targets on trait impressions and the role of stereotyped knowledge for the target's social category in impression formation process. The participants were repeatedly exposed to slides of male and female faces for subliminal durations. For each of 12 pairs containing both previously presented slide and newly presented slide, the participants made forced-choice liking judgments (Experiment 1), trait judgments (Experiment 2) and recognition judgments (Experiments 1 and 2). It was found that participants' attitude toward the targets became more positive, even though target recognition was not significantly greater than the chance level. Yet, when the dimension of judgment was stereotypically associated with the target's social category, exposure effects were obtained for the targets whose social category and its dimension were inferentially matched, but not obtained for the targets whose social category and its dimension were not inferentially matched. Some theoretical implications of the role of social category information in the mere exposure phenomenon are discussed.
Participants watching a facial expression of emotion tend to respond with the same facial expression. This facial concordance is well known for happiness, but not for other emotions. The present study investigated whether facial expressions of basic six emotions induce facial concordance in participants by average-face method. Facial reactions of 20 subjects were videotaped while watching a facial expression of six emotions performed by amateur actors in a computer display. The six average faces were made from corresponding facial expression of emotions in the display. Newly chosen 62 subjects were asked to classify those average faces into six categories of emotion. The facial concordance. was found for happiness and surprise, but not for disgust and fear. However, for average face of anger and that of sadness, classifications were divided into a few categories. This result suggests a possibility that an average faces might have included ambiguous or different faces. It may be necessary to conduct re-classification not with the average-face but with individual faces.
This study investigated influences of recollective experience and self-other differences in episodic retrieval on a following recall test. In the learning phase, subjects were assigned to either self-episodic or other-episodic retrieval condition. In both conditions, subjects were asked to retrieve an episode associated with each trait word, and reported “Remember”, “Know” or “No”. Immediately after the phase, they performed an arithmetic problem for five minutes, and then were given the surprise recall task. “Remember”-reported words were better recalled than “Know”-reported words. And there was no difference in recall between self-episodic and other-episodic retrieval conditions. These results suggest that an existence of recollective experience in episodic retrieval during encoding, produces better recall performance.
This study attempted to adapt into Japanese the Adult Attachment Style Scale (ECR: Experiences in Close Relationships inventory) that was constructed by Brennan, Clark, and Shaver (1998), based on 14 existing scales. Of 387 respondents, 231 who reported having been or are currently involved in romantic relationships were employed for final analysis. We examined validities of the Japanese version of ECR in the two ways: (1) Examining the correlations between “Anxiety” and Self-esteem scale by Rosenberg (1965) which were theoretically related to Self-view, and the correlations between “Avoidance” and Other-view scale by Kato (1999b) which were theoretically related to Other-view; (2) whether or not ECR represents the features of four attachment styles as classified by Relationship Questionnaire (RQ; Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991). The results supported our expectations. This Japanese version of ECR was demonstrated to have adequate psychometric properties in validity and reliability.
A review of the cross-cultural research on gender in psychology since 1990 reveals (1) conceptual confusion of the definitions of sex, gender, man, and woman; (2) diversification, refinement, reification, and a problem-solving orientation in the research topics; and (3) the possibility of the elucidation of the psychological sex-difference mechanism in relation to the biological sex differences. A comparison of 1990 and 2000 cross-cultural psychological articles published in “Sex Roles” found that overall, the research is Western-centered and some methodological problems remain to be solved concerning the measures and the sampling. These findings lead to the following suggestions for cross-cultural research on gender to resolve the problems and contribute to the development of psychology in general: (1) use of an operational definition for conceptual equivalence; (2) conducting more etic-approach research; (3) avoiding ethnocentric or androcentric research attitudes; (4) use of a theoretical framework; (5) strict examination of methodologies; and (6) examination of the specific context of participants in terms of cultural diversity, dynamics of husband-wife relationships, and relationships with husbands and fathers.