The purpose of this study is to propose a way to express and implement paired comparison analysis in a framework of structural equation modeling (SEM). By this method, one can perform paired comparison using widely available SEM programs and can develop a variety of models for specific purposes. Here, three models are shown. One is a model for performing basic paired comparison by using SEM. Another is an expanded model which makes it possible to apply analysis of variance (ANOVA) or regression analysis to the result of paired comparison. A third model is for paired comparison of latent factors. All models are illustrated with actual numerical examples.
American and Japanese students, 44 and 38, respectively, participated in an experiment, and played a game together in seven- or eight-person groups. The game was a repeated version of bilateral trust game: Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) with choice of dependence. In no-information condition, participants were not told that some of the group members were from another country. In information condition, they were told that about half of the members were Japanese and the rest were Americans. We examined whether or not people trusted ingroup members (those from the same country) more than outgroup members, and whether or not they cooperated with ingroup members more than outgroup members. We found no evidence of ingroup bias in terms of trust and cooperation, and we did not find significant differences in the levels of trust or cooperation between those found among Americans and those among Japanese. On the other hand, it was found that American participants were more sensitive than Japanese counterparts, to information regarding the past trust behavior of other players when they were deciding whom they trust and whether or not they reciprocate another's trust.
The present study examined status quo bias in hypothetical conflict situations. Based on Lewin's (1935) typology, four situations were described: approach, avoidant, ambivalent, and no information conflicts. In Study 1 in which 15 male and 68 female undergraduates participated, status quo bias was found in their responses to no information as well as avoidant conflict situations. In Study 2, 29 male and 99 female undergraduates performed decision tasks, and status quo bias was found in ambivalent as well as avoidant conflict situations. In addition, in Study 3, with 25 male and 75 female undergraduates, status quo bias was found in no information, avoidant, and ambivalent conflict situations. In general, strong status quo bias was found in no information as well as avoidant conflict conditions, whereas it was consistently absent in approach conflict situation. These results suggest that status quo bias is a strategy to avoid decisions.
Recent studies have shown the importance of metamemory functions such as confidence ratings in memory performance. However, the question of how people evaluate the accuracy of their own memory remains unresolved. Contrary to the previous studies that indicated the correlation between accuracy and confidence, we examined the influence of subjective source recollection on confidence levels of recognition judgments through two experiments. Participants were first requested to learn two word-lists presented in male and female voices respectively, and to make the yes-no recognition and source judgments -“male”, “female” or “don't know”. The results showed that participants had higher confidence on recognition judgments when they made source attribution than when they chose “don't know” (Experiment 1), and that participants found the recognition items more familiar when they later made source attribution irrespective of its correctness (Experiment 2). These findings suggest that the high initial familiarity to the recognition items induces the subjective experience of recollection, and that such recollective experience leads to high confidence on recognition memory regardless of the accuracy.
This study aimed to assess the distance between adjacent categories of rating scales. It is common practice to treat ordinal variables as interval-scaled variables in the analysis of rating scales. Strictly speaking, however, ordinal scale data should be treated as such, since there is little reason and assurance that they are equivalent to interval variables. In view of this practice, this study proposes a method to assess the interval of rating scales, and analyzes empirical data in order to examine the results obtained by the method. This method is based upon the generalized partial credit model which is one of item response theory (IRT) models. The experiment was carried out on two data sets that differed only on the verbal phrasing of the rating. Main results of the study were: 1) the difference in item content (positive or negative) affects the width of a neutral category; and 2) the distance between categories differs significantly reflecting the difference in verbal phrasing.
In the job hiring process where long-term employment is expected, it is considered vital for the employer to form a mutually trusting relationship with applicants throughout the selection process. In this study, we attempted to develop a structured interview for new graduate hiring at a Japanese corporation, where lifelong employment was assumed. The result was an interview with relatively little structure, so that the interviewer and interviewee could talk more naturally and more deeply. The rate of employee turnover for the year for those who went through the structured interview process was zero, demonstrating validity of the selection process. On the other hand, we found unevenness in the correlations between job performance evaluations during On the Job Training (OJT) and those during the interview, indicating need for further research with longer frame of time for employee evaluations.
A study was conducted to clarify the spatial ability of secondary school students with mental retardation. Two Experiments-1 and 2-were carried out to test the students' spatial knowledge using a sketch map and a pointing task. In Experiment 1, 14 students (mean IQ and SD, 57.69 and 14.13 respectively) participated and were asked to draw sketch maps of their school, and their route from school to home, and to point to landmarks displayed in photos with their finger. Only five of 13 maps of the school, and four of 14 maps of the route home were drawn without heavy distortion. However, the results for pointing out landmarks were fairly good (mean angular error, 26.86). In Experiment 2, 10 students at a different school (mean IQ and SD, 35.4 and 10.3 respectively) participated and were asked to complete the same tasks. Although the sketch maps and pointing performance were not accurate, the difference in accuracy between landmarks inside and outside the school indicated that the students had a better grasp of spatial representation when space was familiar and limited. The difference in results between the sketch map and pointing tasks implies that the two tasks require different spatial representations and cognitive processes.
This study examines the causal relation between depressogenic schemata and depression. Three structural equation models were tested two times among 149 students during five months: (1) one-way causal relation from depressogenic schemata to depression, (2) one-way causal relation from depression to depressogenic schemata, (3) reciprocal relation between depressogenic schemata and depression. Results showed the third model is the most adequate among three models. It is possible that depressogenic schemata influences depression and depression also has some effects on depressogenic schemata. As a result of reviewing previous studies, it is thought that there is a continuity is between clinical and non-clinical groups. Therefore, the findings of this study is useful in understanding the clinical image of depression.
In a study of self-regulated learning study, we proposed a new coping model, in order to comprehensively treat emotional regulation and learning strategies. We also included meta-emotion variables in the model for intervention, so that we could discuss them in relation to intervention. We hypothesized specifically that achievement goals and meta-emotions influenced emotional reactions, and which in turn influenced coping strategies. A questionnaire study was conducted with 193 schoolchildren, and result seemed to support our new model.
The present study investigated whether personality traits may influence the outcome of collage works. In this study, 60 undergraduates were asked to fill Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and generate collage works. The relations between the five factors of the NEO-PI-R (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) and some evaluation measures of collage works (constructional features of collage works and characteristic behavior patterns in the process of their generation) were examined. Results indicated that several subscales of personality traits were substantially correlated with some indices of both two measures. These findings suggest that collage work may be a useful tool for psychological assessment.
This study examined the relationship between emotion work (Zapf, 2002) and burnout. One hundred and eighty-two human service professionals (nurses and caregivers) completed questionnaires. A factor analysis revealed that the concept of emotion work had four main factors: “Negative emotions display”, “Positive emotions display”, “Emotional dissonance”, and “Sensitivity requirements”. In addition, the hierarchical regression analyses revealed only the main effect of “Emotional dissonance” on psychological stress reaction, whereas the main effects of all emotion work variables and two interaction effects of those on burnout. These results suggested that burnout was distinguished from psychological stress reaction by the differences in its relationship to emotion work.