One of the problems with structural equation modeling (SEM) is that the estimation of measurement equation is not separated from the estimation of structural equation. The main aim of this study was to propose a new method to overcome that problem by using ability parameters estimated by item response theory (IRT) as data. According to IRT, the error variance of measurement equation can be easily computed as the reciprocal of the information function. By using the estimates of the error variance, we can fix all parameters in measurement equation and can separate the estimation of structural equation from that of measurement equation. This method also allows us to estimate relations among factor scores with improved precision, because the errors of estimating factor scores are taken into account. The article concludes with a simulation result for verifying the efficacy of this method and an actual numerical.
In this study, a stress reaction scale was constructed based on an Item Response Model, and the developmental process of psychological stress reactions was investigated by using test characteristic curves. Subjects consisted of 286 private college students and 234 national college students. The Job Stress Scale (JSS) was revised for college students, and used to assess psychological stress reaction. Graded response model of Item Response Theory (IRT) was used to estimate parameters. After estimating item and subject parameters, we assessed the precision of measurement and the fit of the model, and found both precision and fit to be satisfactory. Then we examined the test characteristic curves of each subscale to investigate the developmental process of psychological stress reactions of college students in comparison with company employees.
This study investigated the systematic relationship between nonverbal features of speech and personality trait ratings of the speaker. In Study 1, fundamental frequency (F0) in original speech was converted into five levels from 64% to 156.25%. Then 132 undergraduates rated each of the converted speeches in terms of personality traits. In Study 2 134 undergraduates similarly rated the speech stimuli, which had five speech rate levels as well as two F0 levels. Results showed that listener ratings along Big Five dimensions were mostly independent. Each dimension had a slightly different change profile over the five levels of F0 and speech rate. A quadratic regression equation provided a good approximation for each rating as a function of F0 or speech rate. The quadratic regression equations put together would provide us with a rough estimate of personality trait impression as a function of prosodic features. The functional relationship among F0, speech rate, and trait ratings was shown as a curved surface in the three-dimensional space.
Based on the ideal observer analysis, we investigated sampling properties of image information used by human visual system, for symmetrical pattern discrimination on 3D bumpy surface. There were three models of ideal observer (IO) to perform the task: 2D-IO using 2D projection image (i.e., retinal image), 2.5D-IO using image transformed to canonical view, and 3D-JO using recovered pattern image of 2D plane. We measured discrimination thresholds on the task for each IO model and subjects, and calculated human statistical efficiency relative to each ideal observer. The results indicated for the detection of a diagonal symmetry in the bumpy surface that human performance was similar to 3D-IO. This implies that human observers use the structure of the bumpy surface to detect the diagonal symmetry.
The purpose of this study was to validate Japanese research version of Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS), a newly developed measure intended for persons of every occupation. The Japanese MBI-GS was administered to a sample of hospital workers. Exploratory factor analysis found three factors, as in original MBI-GS. Confirmatory factor analysis largely supported MBI-GS structure of three subscales, but the correlation between two subscales was unexpectedly high. To examine its construct validity, the subscale scores were then examined in relation to selected work characteristics. Conservation of resources theory was successful in its predictions of different patterns of effects among the correlates and three burnout subscales. The successful predictions suggested that meaning of each subscale was quite distinct. In all, our examination showed that Japanese MBI-GS assessed the same three dimensions as the original measure for human service workers.
The purpose of this study was to construct a scale to measure both the positive and negative aspects of communion and agency, and to examine relationships among subscales. First, 264 undergraduates, both men and women, rated themselves on 40 items, and CAS (Communion-Agency Scale) was constructed, which consisted of four subscales with 6 items each. Second, 472 undergraduates, 303 women and 169 men, completed the scale, and were assigned, according to their scores on positive communion and agency, to one of four gender types: androgynous, masculine, feminine, and undifferentiated. Analyses of variance for negative communion and agency, with gender types (positive communion and agency) as independent variables, were performed. Factor analysis was also performed on the data. Results indicated that higher positive communion was associated with less negative agency, and higher positive agency with less negative communion. We discussed merits of measuring positive as well as negative aspects of communion and agency.
This study examined relationship between everyday helping behaviors and psychosocial well-being in elderly people. Elderly people attending an institute for adult education (n=471), age ranged from 57 to 82, participated in the study. They completed questionnaires that assessed the following variables: everyday helping behaviors, psychological reactions to helping, and psychosocial well-being, defined as self-esteem, moral, and social integration. The data indicated that psychological reactions resulting from helping consisted of three components: “positive effects on the self and others, ” “negative effects on the self and others, ” and “positive effects on the self.” The helper's psychological reactions to helping had a significant effect on self-esteem, moral, and social integration. There were gender differences in the effect of these variables. These results suggest that an affirmative helping experience in everyday life provides elderly people with a feeling of psychosocial well-being.
This research investigated mental health of marreed people in relation to their marital relationship, occupational life, and household income. A questionnaire was administered to husbands and wives, either in middle age or child-rearing years, to measure their degree of satisfaction in marital relationship, occupational life, household income, and subjective well-being. Results showed that satisfaction in workplace for men, and additionally satisfaction in marital relationship of men in child-rearing years, strongly predicted their subjective well-being. As for women, however, the strong association with subjective well-being was found for satisfaction in marital relationship, for those who were unemployed or employed part-time. The association was strongest for those who were in child-rearing years. Satisfaction in workplace was as important as satisfaction in marital relationship for women who were employed full-time. These findings suggested that satisfaction gained from what a person concentrated most of his/her energy on, explained his/her subjective well-being very well.
This article reviewed research on construction of situation models during reading. To position variety of research in overall process appropriately, an unitary framework was devised in terms of three theories for on-line processing: resonance process, event-indexing model, and constructionist theory. Resonance process was treated as a basic activation mechanism in the framework. Event-indexing model was regarded as a screening system which selected and encoded activated information in situation models along with situational dimensions. Constructionist theory was considered to have a supervisory role based on coherence and explanation. From a view of the unitary framework, some problems concerning each theory were examined and possible interpretations were given. Finally, it was pointed out that there were little theoretical arguments on associative processing at global level and encoding text- and inference-information into long-term memory.