The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two levels of specificity of schema on generation of false recall. One level is widely applied to things and is shared by the general public (less specific schema) and the other is specifically applied to individual things (more specific schem). Sixty female undergraduates watched a video. After two days, they were required to recall the contents of the story. Students were divided into two groups according to whether they have the more specific schema or not. In each group, they were assigned to either free recall task or reality monitoring task. The results showed that (1) the amounts of false recall by the group having the less specific schema only decreased by reality monitoring. (2) The group having the more specific schema had no differential effects on false recall for both tasks. (3) The effect of specificity of schema on false recall was not observed for the scene which did not activate the more specific schema. These results were discussed in terms of the levels of specificity of schema and effectiveness of reality monitoring for eyewitness memory.
This study examined the cross-domain, anticipatory, and self-referential roles of affect (Miall, 1989) in reading short mystery novels. In Experiment 1, undergraduate students either read an entire story once or read the same story twice. During the first reading, these participants read only the first part of the story, and during the second reading, they read the entire story. They rated the importance of each sentence. Then they either described a prediction or their impression of the story. Finally, they created a title. In Experiment 2, the first group rated the importance of each sentence. The second group rated the feelings of understanding: forefeel, empathy, and a sense of strangeness. The results of both experiments showed that the relative importance of sentences shifted between first reading and second reading. As they read the end of the story, empathy increased but a sense of strangeness decreased. The results of description showed that the readers updated their interpretations in order to understand the story correctly.
Two experiments were conducted to test 100 children (aged five years) on an object named novel word selection task. In Experiment 1, the experimenter labeled a novel word to a target object (an elephant) which was in a cage alone, or which was in a cage with many objects (other animals and instruments) around it. In the former case, the subjects usually qualified the word meaning only when similarly restricted by its peripheral objects (a cage). In the latter case, the subjects were likely to qualify the word meaning with a conceptual level name (an elephant). In Experiment 2, the experimenter labeled a novel word to a target object which was in a small cage, or in a large cage. In the former case, the subjects were likely to qualify the word meaning only when being similarly restricted by its peripheral objects. In the latter case, the subjects were likely to qualify the word meaning with a conceptual level name. These findings suggested that, for young children, objects peripheral to a target object had an effect on the meaning of the qualifying word.
This study investigated the effect of interpersonal stress coping training on reducing stress response of 100 student nurses. They were divided into two groups; the coping training (CT) group and the no training control (NT) group. During a three-week period, 50 participants in the CT group were required to adopt postponed-solution coping and keep daily records of how they coped with interpersonal distress. All participants were asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire including measures of distress and coping strategies before and after the training, and also after a 18-week follow-up period. The CT group, compared with the NT group, significantly improved their postponed-solution coping after the training: The CT group was found to be significantly lower in distress than the NT group both after the training and after the follow-up period.
Three experiments examined whether or not switching study background-color contexts among target words at testing reduces word-recognition performance. These experiments also examined whether or not presentation rate -one of the determinants of item strength- interacted with background-color context. Undergraduates learned 40 target words presented at a rate of 1.5 or 3.0 seconds per word in one of two background-color contexts in Experiment 1, and in one of ten contexts in Experiments 2 and 3. Recognition of the targets was tested by mixing 40 distractor words with the targets immediately after the learning session in Experiments 1 and 2, and with a 5-minute filled retention interval in Experiment 3. Experiment 1 failed to find background-color context effects on recognition, but Experiments 2 and 3 successfully found the context effects. Presentation rate did not interact with the context effects. The results conflict with the ICE theory. The implications of the present findings are discussed.
False recognition can occur at high levels after participants study lists of associated words and are tested with semantically related lures. The present study attempted to determine the differences of young and elderly adults in retention interval on false recognition and remember-know judgments of critical lure. Young participants' mean age was 21.6 years (range 21-23 years). Elderly participants' mean age was 69.7 years (range 65-74 years). Participants engaged in estimating the frequency of usage of visually presented words, and they were tested both immediately and one week later after the study phase. We found that elderly adults were relatively more susceptible than young adults to this false recognition effect. Moreover, a reliable increase of false recognition for critical lures was observed across retention interval in young adults but not in elderly adults.
The present study examined whether scores on big five personality factors correlated with face-recognition response time in visual search paradigm. Sixty adjectives were used to measure personality scores of 60 participants along the five factors of Extroversion, Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Picture of human faces or geometrical figures in a 4×4 array were used as stimuli. The sixteen faces or figures were either identical (absent condition) or one randomly placed target with 15 identical distracters (present condition). Participants were asked to respond ‘present’ or ‘absent’ as fast and accurately as possible. Results showed that the response time differed significantly between high and low groups of each personality factor except Agreeableness. For Extroversion, Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness, the response time difference was observed only for human face recognition. The results suggested that personality differences and face recognition were related.
In this article, I discuss the implementation of neural network models for reading English words aloud. Since 1989, there has been existing a debate about the models of reading English words aloud. One is the Dual Route Cascaded (DRC) model. The other is the Triangle model, whose original version was developed in 1989. Because there are arbitrary variables of both models, we did not decide which model gives better accounts for the numerous data given by psychological experiments and neuropsychological evidence. Therefore, in order to give a solution of this debate, an attempt to integrate both models was made. Introducing the Mixture of Experts Network, an elegant solution to overcome the arbitrariness of both models could be given. The Mixture of Expert Network can include both the models as a special case of this Network. From the Mixture of Expert Network's point of view, the difference between the Dual Route Cascaded model and the Triangle model would be able to describe as the quantitative difference of the dispersion parameters.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of hostility ratings made by others. The rating measure was considered essential for the study of correlation between hostility and coronary heart disease. Undergraduate and graduate students, 81 in all, completed a questionnaire of hostility and social desirability. The scales included were Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BAQ), Müller Anger Coping Questionnaire (MAQ), and Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSD). Acquaintances also rated them using BAQ and MAQ. Correlations between self and other ratings were moderate, and self-rated hostility scores correlated negatively with MCSD scores, while other-rated hostility scores did not. Results of ANOVA indicated that self-rated hostility scores were higher than other-rated hostility scores. However, the differences decreased as the degree of closeness between them increased, and no difference was found in long-term close relationship. These results suggested that other ratings of hostility could be an objective measure in Japan, as in western countries.
This study examined the relationships between club members' egoistic self-assertion and their captains' leadership with respect to the adjustment to activities in extracurricular athletic clubs. Participants were 638 junior high school students who belong to the athletic clubs. The research was conducted by means of a questionnaire and the following results were obtained. When the captains took a laissez-faire command, club members who did not assert themselves egoistically were not satisfied with their captains, and did not participate in the club activities very diligently. On the other hand, when the captains took an authoritative command, the members who asserted themselves egoistically were not satisfied with club activities. These results suggest that the relationships between egoistic self-assertion by club members and leadership by captains have a great influence on the adjustment to club activities.
This study examined the effect of orthography (kanji, kana, and alphabet) on the usage of recognition heuristic, in the context of ecological rationality research. Forty-five students participated and performed the task consisted of randomly drawn two-alternative questions about population sizes of the 20 largest Chinese cities, except Beijing and Shanghai. It was found that kanji and kana tasks led to the usage of recognition heuristic more than alphabet task. Furthermore, judgments in kanji and kana tasks were more accurate than in alphabet task. These results suggested that the usage of recognition heuristic was facilitated when it increased judgment accuracy, and that recognition heuristic had ecological rationality.